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Table 2 Sex and education-stratified observed and modelled ǂ (between parenthesis) differences in current smoking and ever smoking between successive and non-successive generations

From: Generation shifts in smoking over 20 years in two Dutch population-based cohorts aged 20–100 years

Differences between generations 20-29 30-39 40-49 55-59 60-69 20-29 30-39
vs vs vs vs vs vs vs
30-391 40-491 50-591 60-692 70-792 40-493 50-593
Difference (%) at age 35 45 55 65 75 45 55
Men overall        
Current smoking −5.6 (−3.8)4 −5.0 (−3.0) −3.8 (−4.3)* −1.7 (+1.4) −13.6 (−3.2) −10.5 (−6.0) 4 * −11.6 (−5.6)*
Ever smoking −9.5 (−9.8)** −2.5 (−2.6) −1.5 (−1.4) −1.0 (+0.1) +1.0 (+2.3) −15.3 (−11.0)** −7.0 (−4.6)*
Men by education
Low        
Current smoking −0.3 (+1.5) +0.6 (+3.2) −11.2 (−10.3)** −1.6 (+2.1) −18.7 (−4.8) +0.1 (+5.0) −13.1 (−6.0)
Ever smoking +4.5 (+1.7) −3.5 (−2.4) −0.4 (−0.9) −8.8 (−6.9) +3.2 (+3.6) −2.4 (−0.1) −7.0 (−3.7)
Middle        
Current smoking −5.1 (−4.1) −5.3 (−4.0) +1.7 (+0.6)b +7.4 (+6.7)a −1.6 (+2.0) −9.2 (−7.4)* b −7.1 (−1.7)
Ever smoking −10.6 (−13.8)** b +0.5 (−1.9) −5.6 (−4.8) +8.2 (+8.4)ab +0.4 (+1.8) −16.1 (−13.9)** b −6.3 (−7.3)
High        
Current smoking −10.3 (−9.6)* c −7.2 (−6.8)* c +8.6 (+4.9)c −14.2 (−7.6)a −18.6 (−6.5)*a −21.4 (−14.6)** c −2.9 (+0.4)
Ever smoking −24.3 (−21.3)** c −0.4 (−1.1) +3.4 (+3.5) +1.2 (+1.9)a +0.5 (+2.6)a −26.3 (−21.2)** c −3.9 (+1.5)
Women overall        
Current smoking −7.3 (−6.2)* −2.8 (−1.9) −0.2 (−0.1) −2.9 (+0.6) +0.9 (+4.4) −11.8 (−6.6)* −4.3 (+0.3)
Ever smoking −10.1 (−10.9)** +13.4 (+12.4)** +21.9 (+20.6)** +15.7 (+12.6)* +15.1 (+16.7)** −2.1 (+0.7) +28.5 (+31.1)**
Women by education
Low        
Current smoking −2.2 (−0.4) −3.7 (−1.4) +1.6 (+2.4) +1.6 (+5.4) −0.9 (+2.9) −6.7 (−0.8) −2.2 (+3.4)
Ever smoking −1.3 (−3.5) +16.8 (+15.9)** +20.7 (+22.7)** +20.0 (+17.5)* +12.3 (+16.3)** +7.3 (+11.1)* +36.5 (+36.1)**
Middle        
Current smoking −11.3 (−11.2)** b +3.5 (+1.2) −5.3 (−7.7)b −15.6 (−11.2)* ab +3.7 (+6.5) −10.9 (−7.9)* −8.4 (−4.7)
Ever smoking −17.1 (−18.1)** +11.9 (+9.9)* +22.6 (+16.6)* +7.4 (+2.7)a +17.3 (+15.0)* −8.5 (−9.1)* b +24.5 (+24.3)**
High        
Current smoking −5.6 (−4.4) −2.0 (−2.0) +3.7 (+2.4) +2.1 (+0.4)a +6.5 (+9.3)a −8.7 (−5.1) +0.7 (+2.3)
Ever smoking −12.2 (−11.8)* +7.7 (+7.6) +20.3 (+10.8) −0.8 (−5.2)a +23.6 (+22.9)a −9.3 (−5.9)c +17.5 (+16.5)* c
  1. 1The oldest generation reached a mean age of 35, 45 or 55 years in 1987–1991 and the youngest generation in 1998–2002.
  2. 2The oldest generation reached a mean age of 65 or 75 years in 1992–1993 and the youngest generation in 2001–2002.
  3. 3The oldest generation reached a mean age of 45 or 55 years in 1987–1991 and the youngest generation in 2008–2012.
  4. 4A negative difference in current or ever smoking between two generations indicates that the younger generation smoked less often than the older one.
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001.
  6. aComparison based on groups with less than 50 observations.
  7. bDifference in smoking prevalence between generations differed significantly between the middle educated compared to the low educated (tested by interaction education*generation).
  8. cDifference in smoking prevalence between generations differed significantly between high educated compared to low educated (tested by interaction education*generation).
  9. ǂModel: For current smoking and ever smoking a logistic random effect model was fitted with generation, education, age, age*generation and education*generation.