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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants stratified by unstable housing at baseline (n = 2453) 1

From: Impact of unstable housing on all-cause mortality among persons who inject drugs

   Unstable housing   
Characteristic Total n (%) Yes 1713 (69.8) No2722 (29.4) Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Gender      
Male 1620 (66.0) 1147 (67.0) 462 (64.0) 1.14 (0.95-1.37) 0.158
Female 833 (34.0) 566 (33.0) 260 (36.0)
Age, in years (median IQR) 37.7 (29.7 – 44.1) 37.8 (30.0 – 44.1) 37.6 (29.6 – 44.0) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.399
Ancestry      
Caucasian 1496 (61.0) 1058 (61.8) 430 (59.6) 1.10 (0.92-1.31) 0.308
Other 957 (39.0) 655 (38.2) 292 (40.4)
HIV serostatus      
Positive 758 (30.9) 551 (32.2) 200 (27.7) 1.23 (1.02-1.50) 0.032
Negative 1692 (69.0) 1161 (67.8) 520 (72.0)
Sex work involvement 3     
Yes 560 (22.8) 410 (23.9) 143 (19.8) 1.27 (1.03-1.58) 0.026
No 1883 (76.8) 1296 (75.7) 576 (79.8)
Daily heroin injection 3     
Yes 909 (37.1) 660 (38.5) 242 (33.5) 1.24 (1.04-1.49) 0.020
No 1538 (62.7) 1049 (61.2) 478 (66.2)
Daily cocaine injection 3     
Yes 733 (29.9) 560 (32.7) 164 (22.7) 1.65 (1.35-2.02) < 0.001
No 1704 (69.5) 1143 (66.7) 552 (76.5)
Daily non-injection cocaine use 3     
Yes 590 (24.1) 496 (29.0) 90 (12.5) 2.87 (2.25-3.66) < 0.001
No 1860 (75.8) 1214 (70.9) 632 (87.5)
Enrolment in a methadone program 3     
Yes 559 (22.8) 373 (21.8) 184 (25.5) 0.82 (0.67-1.00) 0.051
No 1885 (76.8) 1332 (77.8) 537 (74.4)
Incarceration 3     
Yes 326 (13.3) 255 (14.9) 67 (9.3) 1.71 (1.29-2.28) <0.001
No 2122 (86.5) 1454 (84.9) 654 (90.6)
HCV serostatus      
Positive 2025 (82.6) 1450 (84.7) 562 (77.8) 1.59 (1.27-1.98) <0.001
Negative 411 (16.8) 252 (14.7) 155 (21.5)
  1. 1. Not all cells add up to 2453 as participants may choose not to answer sensitive questions.
  2. 2. The reference group is those who do not report unstable housing at baseline.
  3. 3. Refers to behaviors in the last six months.
  4. IQR = inter-quartile range.