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Table 5 Multivariate models examining relationships between religiosity and tobacco use in males

From: Religious involvement and tobacco use in mainland China: a preliminary study

  Total male#n = 1,042B (SE) Muslim n = 433B (SE) Non-Muslim n = 609B (SE)
Current smoking    
Religious attendance −0.34 (0.07)*** −0.31 (0.07)*** −0.08 (0.16)
Model R-square 0.10 0.08 0.03
Importance of religion −0.19 (0.07)** −0.28 (0.15) −0.13 (0.07)
Model R-square 0.08 0.06 0.03
High religiosity −1.22 (0.21)*** −0.97 (0.23)*** −1.56 (1.13)
Model R-square 0.11 0.09 0.03
Religion affiliation −0.01 (0.19) −0.12 (0.47) −0.02 (0.20)
Model R-square 0.08 0.05 0.03
Past smoking    
Religious attendance 0.09 (0.09) 0.06 (0.10) 0.25 (0.19)
Model R-square 0.02 0.02 0.02
Importance of religion 0.08 (0.09) 0.02 (0.22) 0.09 (0.10)
Model R-square 0.02 0.02 0.02
High religiosity 0.27 (0.28) 0.25 (0.31) 0.49(1.14)
Model R-square 0.02 0.02 0.02
Religion affiliation −0.16 (0.261) −0.17 (0.61) −0.12 (0.29)
Model R-square 0.02 0.02 0.02
ICD-10 of Tobacco Use Disorders   
Religious attendance −0.37 (0.21) −0.38 (0.23) −0.63 (0.82)
Model R-square 0.02 0.04 0.04
Importance of religion 0.13 (0.22) −0.08 (0.52) 0.10 (0.24)
Model R-square 0.02 0.03 0.04
High religiosity −0.47 (0.64) −0.64 (0.68) −12.87 (793.6)
Model R-square 0.02 0.03 0.04
Religion affiliation −0.24 (0.64) 11.65 (433.4) −0.60 (0.82)
Model R-square 0.02 0.03 0.04
  1. Model = religious variable + demographics + physical health + mental health.
  2. B = beta, SE = standard error.
  3. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  4. #Tobacco use in females was too low to provide stable estimates.