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Table 2 Smoking status by participant characteristics (N = 2,770 for all comparisons)

From: Religious involvement and tobacco use in mainland China: a preliminary study

  Current smokingChi2/F value Past smokingChi2/F value TUDChi2/F value
Demographics    
Age, years (older) 0.51 67.70*** 2.96
Education, years (higher) 38.85*** 0.22 0.04
Marriage (married) 7.75** 1.03 3.53
Region (developed) 2.13 0.67 2.76
Ethnic (Han vs. Hui) 36.83*** 5.76* 0.10
Migrant (no) 18.86*** 7.50** 0.19
Urban/rural (rural) 0.25 2.70 0.99
Physical health    
Overall health (poor) 7.80** 0.48 2.32
Type II diabetes (yes) 0.70 6.71** 1.15
Hypertension (yes) 1.60 7.50** 5.83*
Any physical pains (no) 11.54*** 1.11 1.18
Mental health    
Anxiety disorder (present) 19.35*** 4.20* 3.93*
Mood disorder (present) 0.71 0.11 0.38
Insomnia (present) 1.39 1.48 3.55*
Religious involvement    
Religious affiliation (no) 19.83*** 3.83* 0.21
Religious attendance (seldom) 19.50*** 0.06 0.16
Importance of religion (less) 30.71*** 1.16 0.01
High religiosity (no) 19.31*** 0.43 0.04
  1. ( ) characteristic associated with higher risk of smoking.
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; TUD: ICD-10 of Tobacco Use Disorders.