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Table 2 Baseline cardiovascular risk factors and access to care measures, stratified by level of need for mental health services, diagnosis of psychotic disorder, sex, ethnicity, access to a family physician and diagnosis of substance dependence in a sample of participants from the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi study

From: Cardiovascular risk factors and 30-year cardiovascular risk in homeless adults with mental illness

  Need level Diagnosis of psychosisc Sex Ethnicityd Has access to family physiciane Diagnosis of substance dependencec
  Moderate High Yes No Male Female Ethno-racial Non ethno-racial Yes No Yes No
  (N=243) (N=109) (N=134) (N=218) (N=250) (N=102) (N=217) (N=119) (N=227) (N=122) (N=128) (N=224)
Self-reported variables b             
Hypertension 45 (18.5) 12 (11.0) 15 (11.2) 42 (19.3)* 41 (16.4) 16 (15.7) 33 (15.2) 18 (15.1) 45 (19.8) 12 (9.8)* 20 (15.6) 37 (16.5)
Diabetes 17 (7.0) 10 (9.2) 8 (6.0) 19 (8.7) 23 (9.2) ≤5 (≤5.0) 19 (8.8) 6 (5.0) 18 (7.9) 9 (7.4) 8 (6.3) 19 (8.5)
Smoking             
Daily/Occasionally 162 (66.7) 83 (76.1) 96 (71.6) 149 (68.3) 192 (76.8) 53 (52.0)*** 138 (63.6) 95 (79.8)** 155 (68.3) 88 (72.1) 118 (92.2) 127 (56.7)***
Never 81 (33.3) 26 (23.9) 38 (28.4) 69 (31.7) 58 (23.2) 49 (48.0) 79 (36.4) 24 (20.2) 72 (31.7) 34 (27.9) 10 (7.8) 97 (43.3)
Any Alcohol Use 107 (44.0) 61 (56.0)* 54 (40.3) 114 (52.3)* 124 (49.6) 44 (43.1) 83 (38.2) 71 (59.7)*** 107 (47.1) 58 (47.5) 88 (68.8) 80 (35.7)***
Any Cocaine Usef 44 (18.1) 26 (23.9) 21 (15.7) 49 (22.5) 49 (19.6) 21 (20.6) 28 (12.9) 36 (30.3)*** 47 (20.7) 22 (18.0) 54 (42.2) 16 (7.1) ***
Marijuana Use 83 (34.3) 42 (38.5) 43 (32.1) 82 (37.8) 98 (39.2) 27 (26.7)* 70 (32.4) 46 (38.7) 79 (35.0) 44 (36.1) 84 (65.6) 41 (18.4)***
Perceived stress scale, Total scores, mean (SD) 22.8 (7.97) 19.8 (9.24)** 18.9 (7.95) 23.7 (8.22)*** 21.9 (8.49) 22.1 (8.36) 21.5 (8.22) 22.9 (9.06) 22.5 (8.34) 20.7 (8.47) 24.0 (7.05) 20.8 (8.96)**
Measured variables g             
BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 6.20 26.5 ± 5.32 26.5 ± 5.65 26.5 ± 6.11 25.6 ± 4.73 28.5 ± 7.81** 26.7 ± 6.06 25.5 ± 5.06 26.8 ± 6.20 25.8 ± 5.38 26.0 ± 5.40 26.7 ± 6.21
Waist circumference, mean (SD), cm 91.9 ± 14.4 94.4 ± 14.6 92.9 ± 14.4 92.5 ± 14.6 92.9 ± 13.4 92.0 ± 17.0 92.3 ± 14.1 92.0 ± 14.8 93.2 ± 15.1 91.8 ± 13.3 92.5 ± 14.4 92.7 ± 14.6
Waist to hip ratio, mean (SD), cm 0.92 ± 0.07 0.94 ± 0.06* 0.93 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.07 0.94 ± 0.06 0.89 ± 0.06*** 0.92 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.07
Blood Pressureh             
Systolic, mean (SD), mmHg 121.7 ± 17.8 120.4 ± 16.8 120.1 ± 17.9 122.1 ± 17.2 121.8 ± 16.6 120.1 ± 19.6 120.8 ± 17.6 121.6 ± 18.0 122.1 ± 18.8 119.8 ± 15.0 120.9 ± 18.4 121.5 ± 17.0
Diastolic, mean (SD), mmHg 80.0 ± 12.2 79.9 ± 11.0 79.6 ± 12.7 80.2 ± 11.3 79.1 ± 11.2 82.0 ± 13.0 80.0 ± 12.4 79.4 ± 10.7 80.3 ± 12.2 79.31 ± 11.1 78.5 ± 10.5 80.8 ± 12.4
JNC7 Hypertension Categories i             
Normal/Prehypertension 185 (76.1) 84 (77.1) 102 (76.1) 167 (76.6) 199 (79.6) 70 (68.6)* 166 (76.5) 94 (79.0) 174 (76.7) 93 (76.2) 105 (82.0) 164 (73.2)
Hypertension I/II 58 (23.9) 25 (22.9) 32 (23.9) 51 (23.4) 51 (20.4) 32 (31.4) 51 (23.5) 25 (21.0) 53 (23.3) 29 (23.8) 23 (18.0) 60 (26.8)
  1. *< 0.05; **< 0.01; ***< 0.001; P values represent group differences using T-tests, Fisher’s and chi-square test, as appropriate.
  2. aUnless indicated, values correspond to N (%).
  3. bVariables with missing values: Any Cocaine Use (N = 1).
  4. cPresence of Psychotic Disorder and Substance Dependence were assessed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview at study entry.
  5. d1 participant was excluded from this participant because they did not self-identify as either ethno-racial or non-ethnoracial.
  6. e“No access” means the participant had need of healthcare but did not have access to healthcare.
  7. fAny cocaine use includes both crack and cocaine use in the last 30 days.
  8. gMeasured variables with missing values: Waist Circumference (N = 9) and Waist-to-Hip (N = 9). All other variables had no missing values.
  9. hIncludes individuals who self-reported having hypertension.
  10. iBased on measured hypertension, employing the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure [37].