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Table 2 Multivariable analysis of the factors associated with weight gain (N = 4,469), excluding participants reporting involuntary weight loss at follow-up

From: Socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of weight gain in the Swiss population

  Weight gain (kg/year) Gain ≥5 kg
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 2
Age group       
 [35-45] 0.46 ± 0.02 0.45 ± 0.02 0.47 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 [45-55] 0.33 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.02 0.80 (0.67 - 0.96) 0.76 (0.63 - 0.92) 0.74 (0.62 - 0.90)
 [55-65] 0.21 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.03 0.65 (0.54 - 0.79) 0.60 (0.49 - 0.73) 0.56 (0.46 - 0.69)
 [65–75] 0.06 ± 0.04 0.08 ± 0.04 0.08 ± 0.04 0.38 (0.28 - 0.51) 0.37 (0.27 - 0.50) 0.35 (0.25 - 0.47)
p-value between groups <0.001a <0.001 <0.001 <0.001a,d <0.001d <0.001d
Gender       
 Women 0.31 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Men 0.30 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.97 (0.84 - 1.13) 0.93 (0.79 - 1.08) 1.02 (0.87 - 1.19)
p-value between groups 0.55b 0.88 0.73 0.72b 0.34 0.80
Born in Switzerland       
 No 0.32 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 - 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) -
 Yes 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 - 0.97 (0.83 - 1.13) 1.04 (0.89 - 1.22) -
p-value between groups 0.47 0.52 - 0.66 0.61  
Nationality       
 Swiss 0.30 ± 0.02 - 0.30 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 French 0.34 ± 0.05 - 0.33 ± 0.05 0.96 (0.70 - 1.32) - 0.98 (0.71 - 1.34)
 Italian 0.45 ± 0.06 - 0.45 ± 0.06 1.41 (1.02 - 1.93) - 1.36 (0.98 - 1.88)
 Portuguese 0.13 ± 0.06 - 0.12 ± 0.06 0.65 (0.45 - 0.95) - 0.60 (0.41 - 0.88)
 Spanish 0.35 ± 0.07 - 0.35 ± 0.07 1.12 (0.75 - 1.66) - 1.10 (0.74 - 1.65)
 Other 0.32 ± 0.03 - 0.31 ± 0.03 1.07 (0.88 - 1.31) - 1.01 (0.82 - 1.25)
p-value between groups 0.006 - 0.005 - - -
Receiving social help       
 No 0.30 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.01 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Yes 0.34 ± 0.04 0.33 ± 0.04 0.34 ± 0.04 1.43 (1.16 - 1.77) 1.28 (1.03 - 1.58) 1.32 (1.07 - 1.64)
p-value between groups 0.32 0.49 0.40 0.001 0.03 0.02
Marital status       
 Living alone 0.36 ± 0.02 0.36 ± 0.02 0.35 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Living in couple 0.28 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 0.73 (0.62 - 0.86) 0.76 (0.65 - 0.90) 0.77 (0.66 - 0.91)
p-value between groups 0.007 <0.05 <0.05 <0.001 0.001 0.002
 Educational level       
 Primary 0.32 ± 0.03    1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Apprenticeship 0.31 ± 0.02 - - 1.05 (0.84 - 1.30) - -
 Secondary school 0.30 ± 0.03 - - 0.88 (0.70 - 1.11) - -
 University 0.29 ± 0.03 - - 0.81 (0.63 - 1.03) - -
p-value between groups 0.95 - - 0.02d   
Smoking status       
 Never 0.29 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Former 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 1.14 (0.95 - 1.36) 1.14 (0.95 - 1.36) 1.13 (0.94 - 1.36)
 Current 0.39 ± 0.03 0.37 ± 0.03 0.37 ± 0.03 1.63 (1.35 - 1.95) 1.59 (1.32 - 1.91) 1.56 (1.29 - 1.88)
p-value between groups 0.003 <0.05 <0.05 <0.001d <0.001d <0.001d
Physical activity       
 No 0.34 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Yes 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.72 (0.62 - 0.83) 0.79 (0.68 - 0.92) 0.77 (0.66 - 0.90)
p-value between groups <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.001 0.003 0.001
Body mass index categories    -    
 Normal 0.33 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.02 - 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) -
 Overweight 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 - 1.46 (1.23 - 1.73) 1.43 (1.21 - 1.70) -
 Obese 0.25 ± 0.03 0.24 ± 0.04 - 1.95 (1.57 - 2.43) 1.89 (1.51 - 2.37) -
p-value between groups 0.13 0.08 - <0.001d <0.001d  
Abdominal obesity       
 No 0.32 ± 0.02 - 0.32 ± 0.02 1 (ref.) - 1 (ref.)
 Yes 0.27 ± 0.03 - 0.26 ± 0.03 1.58 (1.34 - 1.87) - 1.52 (1.28 - 1.80)
p-value between groups 0.08 - <0.05 <0.001   <0.001
  1. OR: Odds Ratio; BMI: Body Mass Index. Results are expressed as multivariable adjusted mean ± standard error of the mean (sem) or as odds-ratio (OR) and (95% CI). Statistical analysis by analysis of variance or logistic regression. Model 1, adjusting for age and gender, except aadjusted for gender only; badjusted for age only; Model 2, adjusted for all the variables in the model (indicated in the column); dp-value of the test for trend; −, not included in the model. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) ORs are indicated in italic.