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Table 1 Sample characteristics (N = 4,469) at baseline and factors associated with weight gain, excluding participants reporting involuntary weight loss

From: Socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of weight gain in the Swiss population

  All participants Weight gain (kg/year) Gain≥5 kg (%)
N 4,469 868
Age group N (%) Mean ± SD N (%)
 [35-45] 1 390 (31.1) 0.46 ± 0.92 334 (24.0)
 [45-55] 1 344 (30.1) 0.33 ± 0.88 272 (20.2)
 [55-65] 1 178 (26.4) 0.21 ± 0.86 202 (17.2)
 [65–75] 557 (12.5) 0.06 ± 0.74 60 (10.8)
 p-value comparing groups   <0.001 <0.001
Gender    
 Women 2 369 (53.0) 0.31 ± 0.92 461 (19.5)
 Men 2 100 (47.0) 0.31 ± 0.84 407 (19.4)
 p-value comparing groups   0.90 0.95
Born in Switzerland    
 No 1 660 (37.1) 0.34 ± 0.85 340 (20.5)
 Yes 2 809 (62.9) 0.29 ± 0.90 528 (18.8)
 p-value comparing groups   <0.05 0.17
Nationality    
 Swiss 2 809 (62.9) 0.29 ± 0.90 528 (18.8)
 French 285 (6.4) 0.35 ± 0.77 54 (19.0)
 Italian 238 (5.3) 0.41 ± 0.87 56 (23.5)
 Portuguese 226 (5.1) 0.24 ± 0.91 36 (15.9)
 Spanish 157 (3.5) 0.36 ± 0.80 34 (21.7)
 Other 754 (16.9) 0.35 ± 0.86 160 (21.2)
 p-value comparing groups   0.12 0.21
Receiving social help    
 No 3 930 (87.9) 0.30 ± 0.86 728 (18.5)
 Yes 539 (12.1) 0.37 ± 1.00 140 (26.0)
 p-value comparing groups   0.06 <0.001
Marital status    
 Living alone 1 414 (31.7) 0.35 ± 0.96 316 (22.4)
 Living in couple 3 052 (68.3) 0.29 ± 0.84 552 (18.1)
 p-value comparing groups   <0.05 <0.001
Educational level    
 Primary 755 (16.9) 0.30 ± 0.98 150 (19.9)
 Apprenticeship 1 579 (35.3) 0.29 ± 0.92 324 (20.5)
 Secondary school 1 158 (25.9) 0.31 ± 0.86 217 (18.7)
 University 977 (21.9) 0.32 ± 0.76 177 (18.1)
 p-value comparing groups   0.84 0.44
Smoking status    
 Never 1 848 (41.4) 0.29 ± 0.85 312 (16.9)
 Former 1 513 (33.9) 0.26 ± 0.84 274 (18.1)
 Current 1 108 (24.8) 0.41 ± 0.97 282 (25.5)
 p-value comparing groups   <0.001 <0.001
Physical activity    
 No 2 018 (45.2) 0.35 ± 0.95 457 (22.7)
 Yes 2 451 (54.8) 0.27 ± 0.82 411 (16.8)
 p-value comparing groups   0.005 <0.001
Body mass index categories    
 Normal 2 192 (49.1) 0.35 ± 0.70 366 (16.7)
 Overweight 1 651 (36.9) 0.29 ± 0.85 343 (20.8)
 Obese 626 (14.0) 0.22 ± 1.37 159 (25.4)
 p-value comparing groups   0.002 <0.001
Abdominal obesity    
 No 3 220 (72.1) 0.34 ± 0.74 583 (18.1)
 Yes 1 249 (28.0) 0.22 ± 1.16 285 (22.8)
 p-value comparing groups   <0.001 <0.001
  1. Results are expressed as average ± standard deviation or as number of participants (percentage). Statistical analysis by chi-square or analysis of variance.