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Table 2 Measures of validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and fecal occult blood testing, using administrative data as the gold standard

From: The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada

  Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Positive predictive value (%) Negative predictive value (%) Kappa statistic
Cervix group      
Overall 96.5 (96.3-96.7) 49.5 (48.6-50.5) 82.7 (82.3-83.1) 84.9 (84.0-85.8) 0.526
AGE      
24-52 years 96.8 (96.6-97.1) 46.6 (45.4-47.8) 84.4 (83.9-84.8) 83.1 (81.9-84.3) 0.508
53-69 years 95.6 (95.2-96.1) 54.0 (52.5-55.5) 78.7 (77.9-79.5) 87.4 (86.2-88.7) 0.542
Birthplace      
Canadian-born 97.3 (97.1-97.5) 48.5 (47.5-49.6) 82.9 (82.4-83.3) 87.7 (86.7-88.6) 0.531
Foreign-born 92.9 (92.2-93.6) 53.3 (51.3-55.3) 81.9 (80.9-82.8) 76.8 (74.8-78.8) 0.505
Immigrant Status*      
Immigrated >5 yrs ago 93.4 (92.7-94.1) 52.8 (50.7-54.9) 81.6 (80.6-82.6) 78.0 (75.9-80.1) 0.507
Immigrated ≤5 yrs ago 83.8 (79.4-88.1) 68.1 (59.6-76.7) 86.6 (82.5-90.6) 63.1 (54.6-71.7) 0.507
Ethnicity      
White 97.1 (96.9-97.3) 48.6 (47.6-49.6) 82.6 (82.2-83.1) 86.8 (85.9-87.7) 0.527
Non-white 90.7 (89.6-91.9) 57.4 (54.5-60.4) 83.2 (81.8-84.6) 72.7 (69.6-75.7) 0.512
Education Status      
High school or higher 96.8 (96.6-97.1) 47.9 (46.9-49.0) 83.8 (83.3-84.2) 84.5 (83.5-85.5) 0.520
Less than high school 93.3 (92.4-94.2) 56.6 (54.5-58.8) 74.1 (72.6-75.5) 86.4 (84.6-88.2) 0.522
Employment      
Employed 97.1 (96.9-97.4) 47.1 (45.9-48.3) 84.2 (83.7-84.6) 85.1 (83.9-86.2) 0.518
Not employed 94.8 (94.3-95.3) 53.5 (52.0-55.0) 79.1 (78.3-79.9) 84.7 (83.4-86.1) 0.528
Mother Tongue      
English 97.4 (97.1-97.6) 48.0 (47.0-49.1) 82.8 (82.3-83.2) 87.6 (86.7-88.6) 0.526
Non-English 93.4 (92.8-94.0) 54.3 (52.4-56.1) 82.3 (81.4-83.2) 78.3 (76.4-80.2) 0.522
Household Income      
More than $30,000 97.6 (97.3-97.8) 45.9 (44.4-47.5) 85.3 (84.7-85.9) 85.4 (84.0-86.9) 0.517
$30,000 or less 95.6 (95.3-96.0) 51.1 (49.9-52.3) 80.5 (79.8-81.1) 84.8 (83.6-85.9) 0.522
Self-Perceived Health      
Excellent 97.1 (96.8-97.4) 47.7 (45.7-49.7) 85.0 (84.2-85.8) 84.0 (82.1-86.0) 0.523
Very good 97.1 (96.8-97.4) 47.1 (45.5-48.6) 83.7 (83.0-84.3) 85.4 (83.9-86.9) 0.516
Good 95.5 (95.0-96.0) 51.4 (49.7-53.2) 81.3 (80.5-82.2) 83.9 (82.2-85.5) 0.525
Fair 94.9 (93.9-95.9) 54.3 (51.5-57.1) 76.8 (75.1-78.5) 86.9 (84.5-89.3) 0.529
Poor 93.8 (91.9-95.6) 55.5 (50.9-60.1) 74.3 (71.3-77.4) 86.6 (82.7-90.5) 0.518
Breast group      
Overall 96.6 (96.3-97.0) 64.3 (63.1-65.5) 82.1 (81.4-82.8) 91.8 (91.0-92.6) 0.649
Birthplace      
Canadian-born 96.8 (96.4-97.2) 64.9 (63.4-66.3) 82.5 (81.8-83.3) 92.1 (91.2-93.1) 0.657
Foreign-born 96.1 (95.3-96.9) 62.7 (60.2-65.1) 80.7 (79.2-82.1) 90.9 (89.1-92.7) 0.625
Immigrant Status*      
Immigrated >5 yrs ago 96.2 (95.4-97.0) 62.7 (60.2-65.3) 80.9 (79.4-82.3) 91.0 (89.2-92.8) 0.628
Immigrated ≤5 yrs ago 89.5 (75.7-100.0) 69.6 (50.8-88.4) 70.8 (52.6-89.0) 88.9 (74.4-100.0) 0.578
Ethnicity      
White 96.7 (96.3-97.1) 64.3 (63.1-65.6) 82.3 (81.5-83.0) 92.0 (91.1-92.8) 0.651
Non-white 94.6 (92.7-96.5) 62.1 (57.0-67.2) 79.7 (76.6-82.8) 88.0 (83.9-92.1) 0.599
Education status      
More than high school 96.9 (96.5-97.2) 63.4 (62.0-64.9) 83.1 (82.4-83.9) 91.6 (90.5-92.6) 0.649
High school or less 95.8 (94.9-96.6) 66.4 (64.2-68.7) 78.6 (77.0-80.1) 92.4 (90.9-93.9) 0.642
Employment      
Employed 96.6 (96.0-97.1) 63.6 (61.8-65.4) 81.5 (80.5-82.6) 91.8 (90.5-93.1) 0.641
Not employed 96.6 (96.2-97.1) 64.9 (63.2-66.5) 82.5 (81.6-83.5) 91.8 (90.7-92.9) 0.655
Mother Tongue      
English 96.7 (96.3-97.1) 64.5 (63.1-66.0) 82.5 (81.8-83.3) 91.9 (91.0-92.9) 0.654
Non-English 96.2 (95.4-97.0) 63.7 (61.2-66.1) 80.7 (79.2-82.1) 91.4 (89.7-93.1) 0.634
Household Income      
More than $30,000 97.4 (96.9-97.9) 60.4 (58.1-62.7) 83.1 (81.9-84.2) 92.1 (90.5-93.6) 0.632
$30,000 or less 96.1 (95.6-96.6) 66.3 (64.7-67.8) 81.2 (80.3-82.2) 91.8 (90.8-92.9) 0.655
Self-Perceived Health      
Excellent 97.1 (96.3-97.8) 65.9 (63.0-68.9) 84.6 (83.1-86.1) 92.2 (90.2-94.2) 0.677
Very good 96.8 (96.3-97.4) 63.3 (61.1-65.5) 84.3 (83.2-85.4) 90.8 (89.2-92.4) 0.651
Good 96.4 (95.7-97.1) 63.9 (61.6-66.1) 81.3 (80.0-82.6) 91.6 (90.1-93.2) 0.640
Fair 96.4 (95.3-97.5) 64.9 (61.8-68.0) 77.4 (75.2-79.5) 93.6 (91.7-95.5) 0.632
Poor 93.8 (91.2-96.3) 65.6 (61.0-70.2) 70.4 (66.3-74.6) 92.3 (89.3-95.4) 0.582
FOBT group      
Overall 77.4 (75.7-79.0) 89.8 (89.2-90.3) 62.1 (60.4-63.8) 94.8 (94.4-95.2) 0.612
Gender      
Female 77.6 (75.4-79.7) 90.7 (90.0-91.5) 66.1 (63.8-68.4) 94.5 (94.0-95.1) 0.640
Male 77.1 (74.6-79.6) 88.7 (87.8-89.5) 57.5 (55.0-60.1) 95.1 (94.5-95.7) 0.579
Birthplace      
Canadian-born 78.3 (76.4-80.2) 89.7 (89.0-90.3) 61.4 (59.5-63.4) 95.2 (94.7-95.6) 0.613
Foreign-born 74.8 (71.5-78.0) 90.0 (88.9-91.1) 64.0 (60.7-67.3) 93.7 (92.8-94.7) 0.609
Immigrant Status*      
Immigrated >5 yrs ago 75.3 (72.0-78.7) 90.1 (89.0-91.2) 64.4 (61.0-67.8) 93.9 (93.0-94.8) 0.615
Immigrated ≤5 yrs ago 54.5 (25.1-84.0) 88.6 (78.0-99.1) 60.0 (29.6-90.4) 86.1 (74.8-97.4) 0.445
Ethnicity      
White 77.4 (75.7-79.1) 89.9 (89.3-90.4) 62.3 (60.5-64.1) 94.8 (94.4-95.3) 0.615
Non-white 73.5 (66.5-80.5) 89.4 (87.1-91.7) 61.0 (53.9-68.1) 93.7 (91.8-95.6) 0.583
Education Status      
More than high school 77.7 (75.9-79.5) 89.4 (88.7-90.0) 62.9 (61.0-64.8) 94.5 (94.0-95.0) 0.615
High school or less 75.4 (71.8-79.1) 90.8 (89.8-91.8) 59.0 (55.3-62.7) 95.5 (94.7-96.2) 0.594
Employment      
Employed 76.7 (74.1-79.2) 90.7 (89.9-91.4) 61.2 (58.6-63.7) 95.3 (94.7-95.9) 0.611
Not employed 77.8 (75.7-80.0) 88.9 (88.1-89.7) 62.8 (60.5-65.0) 94.3 (93.7-94.9) 0.611
Mother Tongue      
English 79.2 (77.3-81.0) 89.4 (88.8-90.1) 61.6 (59.7-63.5) 95.2 (94.8-95.7) 0.617
Non-English 72.1 (68.7-75.5) 90.7 (89.6-91.7) 63.6 (60.1-67.0) 93.5 (92.6-94.4) 0.597
Household Income      
More than $30,000 78.3 (76.0-80.7) 89.1 (88.2-89.9) 61.6 (59.1-64.0) 94.8 (94.2-95.4) 0.610
$30,000 or less 76.0 (73.5-78.5) 90.2 (89.4-91.0) 61.8 (59.2-64.3) 94.8 (94.2-95.4) 0.607
Self-Perceived Health      
Excellent 79.4 (75.8-82.9) 89.6 (88.3-90.9) 63.7 (59.9-67.5) 94.9 (94.0-95.9) 0.630
Very good 79.2 (76.7-81.7) 89.3 (88.3-90.2) 65.0 (62.4-67.7) 94.4 (93.7-95.2) 0.633
Good 75.9 (72.8-79.1) 90.7 (89.8-91.7) 62.6 (59.4-65.8) 94.9 (94.1-95.6) 0.615
Fair 73.3 (67.8-78.8) 89.7 (88.2-91.3) 54.3 (49.0-59.6) 95.3 (94.2-96.4) 0.545
Poor 65.7 (54.6-76.8) 87.9 (85.2-90.6) 40.7 (31.6-49.8) 95.3 (93.5-97.1) 0.423
  1. *Among those who were foreign-born.