Skip to main content

Table 2 Differences between schools that participate in few (02) and many (≥3) health promoting activities during the preceding 23 years

From: Health promotion in primary and secondary schools in Denmark: time trends and associations with schools’ and students’ characteristics

  2006(n=74) 2010(n=69)
  Number of health promoting activities
  0-2(n=27) ≥3(n=47) p-value 0-2(n=27) ≥3(n=42) p-value OR 95%CI††
School compositional characteristics
Number of pupils at the schools (mean, SD) 381 (208) 339 (200) 0.395 264 (184) 329 (232) 0.232 1.0 0.99-1.0
Number of teachers at the schools (mean, SD) 36 (20) 31 (19) 0.280 25 (17) 29 (23) 0.350 1.0 0.98-1.0
Number of students per teacher (mean, SD) 11 (2) 11 (3) 0.331 11 (2) 11 (3) 0.847 1.1 0.9-1.2
Ethnic minorities (mean %, SD) 11% (21) 10% (20) 0.931 4% (6) 9% (16) 0.064 1.0 0.99-1.0
Facilities for health promotion projects
School facilities correspond to the school’s needs         
  Outdoor areas 48% 47% 0.912 44% 55% 0.403 0.8 0.4-1.7
  Access to (healthy) food 22% 17% 0.582 15% 28% 0.202 0.8 0.3-1.9
  Dining hall 19% 9% 0.218 7% 10% 0.715 1.5 0.6-4.3
  Gym or sports center 78% 62% 0.155 33% 49% 0.208 1.0 0.5-2.0
  Equipment for sports 52% 49% 0.809 30% 32% 0.856 1.0 0.5-2.0
Competing problems
Problems at the school (mean score, SD)     12 (3) 11 (3) 0.568 0.9 0.8-1.1
Problems in the neighborhood (mean score, SD)     10 (2) 9 (2) 0.604 0.9 0.7-1.2
Resources
Social climate among teachers       0.833   
  Very good     56% 52%   1.0  
  Good     41% 41%   1.1 0.4-2.9
  Fairly good     4% 7%   2.0 0.2-21.6
Social climate among students       0.838   
  Very good     22% 29%   1.0  
  Good     67% 62%   0.7 0.2-2.3
  Fairly good     11% 10%   0.7 0.1-4.0
Resources in the local area (mean score, SD)     11 (2) 12 (2) 0.453 1.1 0.8-1.5
Affluence of school neighborhood       0.471   
  Very/somewhat affluent     19% 13%   1.0  
  Like the average     56% 48%   1.3 0.3-5.2
  Not at all/not so affluent     26% 40%   2.3 0.5-10.5
Behavioral characteristics of the students*
Fruit daily (mean %, SD) 42% (10) 43% (8) 0.723 51% (12) 49% (11) 0.741 1.0 0.97-1.03
Vegetables daily (mean %, SD) 36% (10) 38% (9) 0.370 43% (11) 43% (12) 0.710 1.0 0.98-1.05
Sweets ≤1 time/week (mean %, SD) 39% (12) 44% (10) 0.047 48% (11) 48% (15) 0.877 1.0 0.99-1.04
Soft drinks ≤1 time/week (mean %, SD) 55% (14) 57% (9) 0.510 58% (12) 62% (13) 0.162 1.0 0.99-1.1
Physically active ≥4 times/week (mean %, SD) 39% (8) 42% (10) 0.168 35% (9) 33% (9) 0.385 1.0 0.98-1.04
Non-smokers (mean %, SD) 90% (7) 91% (5) 0.485 94% (6) 92% (7) 0.403 1.0 0.9-1.1
Not been bullied (mean %, SD) 76% (8) 74% (9) 0.374 80% (8) 78% (8) 0.424 1.0 0.9-1.02
No binge-drinking (mean %, SD)** 45% (15) 43% (20) 0.707 71% (20) 68% (15) 0.530 1.0 0.98-1.01
No sexual intercourse (mean %, SD)** 65% (12) 60% (14) 0.182 59% (12) 64% (14) 0.232 1.0 0.97-1.03
  1. None of the participants used the response options ‘Poor’ or ‘Very poor’.
  2. *Expressed as mean percentage, calculated as the sum of the percentage of students eating fruit daily at each school divided by the number of schools, and similarly for the remaining behavioral characteristics.
  3. **Only obtained from 9th graders.
  4. OR = Odds ratio. The ORs express the association between each of the independent variables and the participation in many (≥3) health promoting activities.
  5. ††95% CI = 95% Confidence Intervals.