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Table 2 Factors associated with patient delay in accessing TB treatment services

From: Tuberculosis treatment delays and associated factors within the Zimbabwe national tuberculosis programme

Characteristic (N = 383)   Patient delay > 30 days*
n (%) OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age in years    
 18 – 25 30 (55.8) Reference Reference
 26 – 44 122 (50.0) 0.79 (0.41-1.53) 0.55 (0.25-1.19)
 45 – 54 24 (43.9) 0.62 (0.26-1.46) 0.55 (0.21-1.43)
 ≥55 9 (29.4) 0.33 (0.12-0.88) 0.35 (0.10-1.24)
Sex    
 Female 80 (46.5) Reference Reference
 Male 105 (49.7) 1.13 (0.72-1.78) 1.07 (0.59-1.96)
Type of health facility    
 District/mission hosp 95 (51.2) Reference Reference
 Provincial hospital 10 (5.2) 1.77 (0.64-4.86) 1.82 (0.53-6.30)
 Urban municipal clinic 45 (24.6) 2.45 (1.42-4.22) 1.78 (0.88-3.60)
 Rural primary healthcare facility 35 (19.0) 2.61 (1.36-5.01) 2.70 (1.27-5.75)
HIV status    
 Not tested 2 (40.0) Reference Reference
 HIV negative 63 (44.6) 1.21 (0.25-5.81) 1.01 (0.16-6.51)
 HIV positive, not on ART 36 (51.0) 1.56 (0.32-7.66) 1.38 (0.22-8.77)
 HIV positive, on ART/CPT 80 (50.5) 1.53 (0.32-7.30) 1.68 (0.26-10.77)
Staying with anyone currently on TB treatment    
 No 170 (48.9) Reference Reference
 Yes 15 (41.7) 0.75 (0.35-1.61) 0.99 (0.79-1.23)
Education    
 More than secondary 10 (48.2) Reference Reference
 Secondary 101 (52.7) 1.20 (0.43-3.31) 1.40 (0.45-4.37)
 Primary 66 (44.8) 0.87 (0.31-2.45) 1.35 (0.39-4.74)
No education 9 (36.7) 0.62 (0.17-2.29) 1.10 (0.23-5.33)
Employment status    
 Formal employment 25 (61.2) Reference Reference
 Informal employment 54 (51.5) 0.67 (0.33-1.39) 0.92 (0.37-2.27)
 Unemployed 104 (44.3) 0.50 (0.26-1.00) 0.74 (0.30-1.85)
Residence    
 Urban 60 (52.8) Reference Reference
 Rural 119 (46.2) 0.82 (0.53-1.26) 1.04 (0.80-1.33)
History of smoking    
 Never 131 (48.8) Reference Reference
 Current smoker 10 (36.8) 0.61 (0.24-1.57) 0.59 (0.20-1.78)
 Quit smoking 43 (50.3) 1.06 (0.63-1.80) 0.75 (0.35-1.62)
History of alcohol use    
 Never 98 (46.2) Reference Reference
 Current drinker 12 (43.0) 0.88 (0.40-1.91) 1.19 (0.39-3.57)
 Quit alcohol use 69 (52.3) 1.28 (0.78-2.08) 1.26 (0.61-2.64)
Previous contact with TB patient    
 No 100 (47.8) Reference Reference
 Yes 84 (48.8) 1.03 (0.66-1.59) 0.96 (0.79-1.16)
Took traditional medicine    
 No 163 (46.8) Reference Reference
 Yes 22 (62.4) 1.88 (0.84-4.20) 1.80 (0.76-4.28)
Took self-medication from pharmacy    
 No 140 (44.5) Reference Reference
 Yes 45 (65.4) 2.35 (1.35-4.11) 2.33 (1.23-4.43)
First consulted private practitioner    
 No 166 (46.9) Reference Reference
 Yes 19 (65.3) 2.14 (0.95-4.81) 1.47 (0.56-3.87)
Time taken to reach health facility    
 <30 minutes 89 (59.3) Reference Reference
 30mins - 1 hour 40 (39.9) 0.45 (0.26-0.81) 0.43 (0.22-0.83)
 >1 hour 54 (42.5) 0.51 (0.31-0.82) 0.47 (0.24-0.94)
Distance to health facility (in km)    
 ≤5 66 (54.1) Reference Reference
 6 – 15 28 (43.8) 0.66 (0.36-1.21) 1.14 (0.52-2.47)
 16 – 30 27 (50.1) 0.85 (0.41-1.76) 1.85 (0.79-4.37)
 ≥30 39 (43.0) 0.64 (0.35-1.18) 1.39 (0.60-3.23)
Difficulty in accessing transport to health centre    
 No 150 (46.6) Reference Reference
 Yes 35 (57.3) 1.51 (0.80-2.85) 0.66 (0.40-1.08)
Ever heard of TB before diagnosis?    
 No 18 (40.4) Reference Reference
 Yes 156 (48.7) 1.40 (0.63-3.13) 1.16 (0.97-1.40)
Total 184 (48.3) - -
  1. *Patient delay was defined as a period >30 days from onset of any TB symptom to date of first encounter with health worker.
  2. HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; CPT = cotrimoxazole preventive therapy; ART = antiretroviral therapy; TB = tuberculosis; VCT = voluntary counseling and testing; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.