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Table 3 Mean accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity, in minutes per day (1 minute bouts, with standard deviation) by site and socioeconomic characteristics for subjects with complete socioeconomic data (n = 2,101)

From: Association of car ownership and physical activity across the spectrum of human development: Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS)

  USA Seychelles Jamaica South Africa Ghana
(n = 427) (n = 415) (n = 379) (n = 469) (n = 411)
Mean MVPA 24.3 (29.8) 29.7 (21.3) 24.6 (20.7) 37.6 (31.1) 35.3 (23.1)
Years of education (overall tertiles)     
Lowest tertile 48.2 (49.6) 29.9 (22.4) 27.5 (20) 37.9 (33) 36 (23.3)
Middle tertile 27.1 (33.1) 34.5 (26) 23.4 (20.1) 37.3 (29.2) 32.1 (19.7)
Upper tertile 19.7 (22.1) 26.8 (17.1) 20.5 (24.8) <5 obs 32.4 (23.8)
p for continuous <0.001* 0.037* 0.0143* 0.508 0.526
Unskilled manual, skilled manual vs. non-manual    
Non-manual occupation 16.6 (18.1) 24.9 (17.4) 20.4 (18.8) 30.2 (21.0) 29.7 (20.2)
Skilled manual 23.0 (23.7) 37.1 (23.8) 26.5 (25.0) 49.7 (33.0) 41.8 (22.8)
Unskilled manual 30.4 (35.6) 33.3 (23.5) 25.8 (20.2) 38.4 (32.0) 35.2 (23.2)
p for difference (F-test) <0.001* <0.001* 0.089 0.159 0.033*
Employment status      
Employed 26.0 (28.0) 30.4 (22.5) 26.5 (22.2) 38.5 (29.5) 35.3 (25.3)
Unemployed 32.6 (36.4) 26.9 (16.9) 18.8 (16.4) 34.0 (27.4) 22.5 (14.2)
p for difference <0.001* 0.285 <0.001* 0.136 <0.001*
Relative poverty      
Poverty 23.8 (29.8) 31.6 (21.5) 23.8 (18.7) 37.4 (31) 35.8 (23)
Not poverty 28.9 (29.8) 27.0 (20.8) 25.4 (22.5) 54.5 (38.5) 32.7 (23.3)
p for continuous 0.282 0.033 0.442 0.150 0.354
Material goods scale      
0 to 11 52.5 (64.3) 32.3 (21) 27.8 (20.9) 37.7 (31.5) 35.5 (23)
12 to 18 23.7 (28.5) 28.8 (21.4) 22.1 (20.2) 37.1 (28.5) 33.8 (23.5)
p for continuous <0.001* 0.001* 0.005* 0.345 0.056
Car ownership      
No 46.6 (45.4) 33.7 (20.1) 26.8 (20.7) 38.2 (31.7) 36.6 (23.2)
Yes 20.4 (24.2) 23.0 (21.8) 20.5 (20) 33.8 (26.5) 25.8 (19.3)
p for difference <0.001* <0.001* 0.005* 0.316 0.002*
  1. 1PPI = purchasing power parity in 2011, in US dollars per year, per household member.
  2. 2Household income categories differ across imputations, precluding use of multiple imputation (MI). Unimputed means are reported. P-values are based on continuous income in an MI model.
  3. *denotes p < 0.05.
  4. 3PPI = purchasing power parity in 2011, in US dollars per year, per household member. See http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD for national average based on PPI. See Table 2 for mean values by site.
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