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Table 2 Site specific demographics, all participants with valid physical activity and socioeconomic data (N = 2,101)

From: Association of car ownership and physical activity across the spectrum of human development: Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS)

  USA Seychelles Jamaica South Africa Ghana p-value across sites
(n = 427) (n = 415) (n = 379) (n = 469) (n = 411)
PPI adjusted Gross National Income (GNI)1 per capita in US$ 50,861 21,340 8,170 11,640 3,340  
Human Development Index (HDI), 2010 0.934 0.799 0.727 0.621 0.540  
Age (SD) 35.5 (6.3) 36 (5.6) 34.6 (6.1) 33.6 (5.8) 34.6 (6.6) <0.001
Male sex (%) 48.0 48.7 51.2 47.8 42.3 0.15
Body mass index (kg/m2) (SD) 32.1 (8.7) 26.8 (5.4) 26.3 (6.3) 27.5 (8.2) 24.1 (4.4) <0.001
Obese (BMI > =30) (%) 53.6 23.9 25.6 31.8 9.5 <0.001
Years of education (SD) 13.3 (2.2) 12.9 (2.3) 10.7 (2.0) 9.8 (2.3) 8.4 (4.0) <0.001
Household income1 per person in US$ (SD2) 11,652 (10,700) 10,779 (7,505) 7,042 (8,761) 886 (1,251) 1,272 (6,205) <0.001
Proportion in relative poverty3 (%) 89.7 59.5 49.6 98.5 85.6 <0.001
Manual laborer or farmer (%) 48.7 41.4 63.9 87.4 75.7 <0.001
  1. 1PPI = purchasing power parity in 2011, in US dollars per year. See http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD for national average based on PPI.
  2. 2Standard deviation for imputed income based on weighted average across 10 imputed datasets; inverse variance used for weights.
  3. 3Proportion falling below half PPI-GNP per capita.
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