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Table 3 Differences in mean vitamin D levels and prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status between asthmatic and non-asthmatic participants

From: Vitamin D levels and status amongst asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents in Cyprus: a comparative cross-sectional study

   Mean (SD) Unadjusted Model Adjusted Model*
b coefficient (95% CI) b coefficient (95% CI)
Vitamin D levels NWNA 22.90 (6.41) Ref Ref
AA 21.15 (5.59) −1.76 (−3.34 , −0.17); p = 0.03 −1.67 (−3.20, −0.14); p = 0.03
   Prevalence (%) Unadjusted Model Adjusted Model*
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Severe vitamin D deficiency NWNA 4.0% Ref Ref
(levels < 12 ng/mL) AA 8.7% 2.32 (0.92, 5.84); p = 0.08 2.54 (0.97, 6.62); p = 0.06
Vitamin D deficiency NWNA 34.7% Ref Ref
(levels <20 ng/mL) AA 40.6% 1.26 (0.76, 2.10); p = 0.37 1.21 (0.72, 2.04); p = 0.47
Moderate vitamin D deficiency NWNA 61.6% Ref Ref
(levels <25 ng/mL) AA 75.4% 1.88 (1.05, 3.37); p = 0.03 1.91 (1.05, 3.49); p = 0.04
Vitamin D insufficiency NWNA 84.0% Ref Ref
(levels < 30 ng/mL) AA 94.2% 3.45 (1.06, 11.22); p = 0.04 3.23 (0.98, 10.65); p = 0.05
Odds of belonging to a lower category of vitamin D levels # NWNA   Ref Ref
AA   1.60 (1.01, 2.51); p = 0.04 1.60 (1.01, 2.53); p = 0.04
p value for proportionality assumption in the ordinal model    p = 0.509 p = 0.656
  1. Notes: b coefficients corresponds to difference in mean vitamin D levels between Active Asthmatics (AA) and the Non asthmatic group (NWNA) as estimated in linear regression models before and after adjusting for potential confounders Odds ratios of inadequate vitamin D status between AA and NWNA as estimated in logistic regression models before and after adjusting for potential confounders *Multiple linear and logistic regression models adjusted for gender, body fat percent, season of assessment, self-reported sun exposure in winter, skin type. #Estimated in ordinal logistic regression models along with p-value of test for parallel lines; a non-significant value provides evidence that the proportionality assumption of the ordinal model holds.