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Table 2 Differences in mean 25(OH)D by participant characteristics in the two study groups (NWNA and AA) separately

From: Vitamin D levels and status amongst asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents in Cyprus: a comparative cross-sectional study

  Never Wheezers Never Asthmatics (NWNA) Active Asthmatics (AA)
n = 671 n = 69
Variable   Mean 25(OH)D levels (SD) p-value Mean 25(OH)D levels (SD) p-value
Gender Male 23.87 (6.62) <0.01 21.70 (5.20) 0.48
Female 22.23 (6.19) 20.71 (5.92)
Season Autumn 25.86 (6.73) 0.03 26.80 (2.55) 0.49
Winter 22.73 (6.51) 20.91 (5.43)
Spring 22.61 (6.10) 21.01 (5.72)
Sun exposure in Summer <1 hour 22.05 (6.05) 0.25 16.33 (6.23) 0.09
1-2 hours 22.58 (7.13) 21.08 (8.45)
2-3 hours 22.57 (6.25) 19.78 (5.97)
3-4 hours 23.07 (5.88) 21.94 (4.47)
>4 hours 23.22 (6.63) 22.00 (5.34)
Sun exposure in Winter <1 hour 22.16 (6.62) <0.01 17.63 (6.18) 0.18
1-2 hours 22.31 (6.06) 22.34 (5.100
2-3 hours 23.69 (6.67) 20.01 (5.53)
3-4 hours 23.98 (5.83) 22.68 (6.12)
>4 hours 25.13 (7.52) 22.18 (3.20)
Use of sun protection Never/rarely 22.75 (6.10) 0.36 20.49 (6.99) 0.94
Occasionally 22.88 (6.88) 22.11 (4.42)
Most of the time 22.16 (5.79) 18.69 (5.14)
Almost always/Always 23.93 (6.54) 21.73 (6.08)
Skin type Olive 23.42 (8.84) 0.04 23.95 (0.78) 0.01
Olive/Medium 22.48 (6.23) 22.15 (5.00)
Medium/Fair 23.83 (6.59) 18.47 (6.55)
Fair 24.30 (5.37) 16.30 (0)
Exercise level (IPAQ) Low 22.75 (6.57) 0.40 21.13 (6.14) 0.81
Moderate 22.88 (6.23) 21.06 (5.25)
High 23.47 (6.07) 22.05 (5.27)
Parental education Elementary 22.68 (7.44) 0.62 22.20 (3.05) 0.87
Secondary 22.99 (6.50) 20.80 (5.38)
Tertiary 22.65 (6.16) 21.48 (6.28)
Smoking status No 22.86 (6.75) 0.06 21.27 (5.68) 0.69
Yes 24.54 (6.83)   20.52 (5.36)  
Body fat percent Quartile 1 23.48 (6.30) 0.02 22.23 (5.68) 0.33
Quartile 2 23.42 (7.08) 21.45 (4.66)
Quartile 3 23.07 (5.91) 20.72 96.17)
Quartile 4 21.78 (6.23) 20.38 (6.08)
Dietary intake vitamin D <400 IU 22.96 (6.43) 0.13 20.87 (5.59) 0.14
>400.1 IU 21.27 (5.77) 24.90 (6.83)
  1. Notes: With the exception of gender and dietary vitamin D intake where p-value for difference is reported, in all other cases, p-value for linear trend is reported.