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Table 1 Participant characteristics by study group

From: Vitamin D levels and status amongst asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents in Cyprus: a comparative cross-sectional study

  Never Wheezers Never Asthmatics (NWNA) Active Asthmatics (AA) p-value
n = 671 n = 69
Gender: Male 42.8% 43.5% 0.91
Season of assessments
  Autumn 11.3% 2.9% 0.00
  Winter 50.1% 31.9%
  Spring 38.6% 65.2%
Parental education level
  None/Primary 3.0% 7.2% 0.14
  Secondary 61.9% 55.1%
  Tertiary 35.2% 37.7%
Sun exposure in the Summer
  < 1 hour/day 2.8% 4.3% 0.22
  1-2 hours/day 15.8% 7.2%
  2-3 hours/day 25.9% 23.2%
  3-4 hours/day 24.8% 24.6%
  >4 hours/day 30.6% 40.6%
Sun exposure in the Winter
  < 1 hour/day 21.6% 15.9% 0.55
  1-2 hours/day 39.2% 39.1%
  2-3 hours/day 21.9% 20.3%
  3-4 hours/day 11.4% 17.4%
  >4 hours/day 6.0% 7.2%
Sun protection
  Never/Rarely 24.7% 24.6% 0.47
  Occasionally 37.2% 39.1%
  Most of the times 21.5% 14.5%
  Always/Almost always 16.6% 21.7%
Skin type
  Olive 4.0% 2.9% 0.97
  Olive medium 69.5% 69.6%
  Medium fair 25.0% 26.1%
  Fair 1.5% 1.4%
Exercise level (IPAQ)
  Low 52.9% 49.2% 0.40
  Moderate 34.0% 41.5%
  High 13.1% 9.2%
Dietary intake vitamin D
  <400 IU 93.9% 91.2% 0.37
Family history of allergies 19.4% 49.3% <0.01
Current smokers 9.8% 15.9% 0.11
Age Mean (SD) in years) 17.0 (0.61) 16.9 (0.57) 0.63
Body fat percent – Mean (SD) 22.0 (8.9) 21.7(8.6) 0.77
  1. Notes: p-value of t-test in the case of age and body fat percent; otherwise, p-value of chi-square test.