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Table 5 Prevalence of cardio metabolic risk factors by tribes and sub-tribes

From: Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization

Risk factors Overall Tribes and sub-tribes
   Proto Malay Senoi Negrito
   Seletar Jakun Mahmeri Semai Jehai Mendriq Batek
Obesity (>30 kg/m2) 16.8% ± 3.0% 31.6% ± 5.7% 5.8% ± 5.5% 27.5% ± 13.8 8.8% ± 7.4% 1.90% ± 2.6% 4.5% ± 6.1 0.0% ± 0.0
Abdominal obesity 38.4% ± 3.4% 66.10% ± 5.86% 29.60% ± 10.7% 31.10% ± 13.52% 16.10% ± 9.62% 13.60% ± 9.5% 27.30% ± 13.16% 6.30 ± 6.87
(M: Waist >90 cm
F: Waist >80 cm)
Hypertension ≥140/90 mmHg 29.6% ± 3.6% 29.4% ± 5.6% 14.5% ± 8.2% 35.4% ± 13.5% 12.3% ± 8.5% 43.8% ± 9.29% 16.3% ± 11.0% 51.2% ± 15.3
Reduced HDL-C 45.8% ± 3.9% 24.5% ± 5.3% 72.9% ± 10.4% 42.10% ± 12.82% 33.30% ± 12.23% 63.90% ± 9.56% 72.10% ± 13.41% 77.10% ± 11.89%
(M: < 1.0 mmol/L
F: < 1.3 mmol/L)
Elevated TG 23.9% ± 3.3% 22.5% ± 5.1% 30.0% ± 10.7% 16.1% ± 9.6% 26.3% ± 11.4% 29.9% ± 9.1 27.9% ± 13.4% 12.5% ± 9.4%
(≥1.7 mmol/L)
IFG 7.4% ± 2.4% 9.9% ± 3.7% 1.4% ± 2.8% 3.4% ± 4.8% 7.5% ± 7.1% N/A N/A N/A
(FPG 6.1 mmol/L to 6.9 mmol/L)
High HbA1c 8.8 ± 2.2 18.2% ± 4.8% 1.5% ± 2.8% 7.3% ± 8.0% 3.6% ± 4.9% 4.2% ± 4.0% 0.0% ± 0.0 0.0% ± 0.0%
(≥42 mmol/mol [6.0%]) %
Pre-Diabetes 4.2 ± 1.6 9.1% ± 3.6% 1.5% ± 2.9% 0.0 1.8% ± 3.5% 2.1% ± 2.9% 0.0 0.0
(HbA1C 6.0% - 6.4%)
Diabetes Mellitus 4.6 ± 1.6 9.1% ± 3.6% 0.0 7.3% ± 8.0% 1.8% ± 3.5% 2.1% ± 2.9% 0.0 0.0
(HbA1C ≥ 6.5%)
Data expressed as prevalence at 95% confidence intervals     
Data calculated using IBM Statistics SPSS v21.0.