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Table 4 Association between anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors by tribes and sub-tribes

From: Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization

Risk factors Overall Tribes and Sub-tribes  
   Proto Malay Senoi Negrito Significance
   Seletar Jakun Mahmeri Semai Jehai Mendriq Batek p-value
BMI (kg/m 2 ) % 22.90 (8.50) 27.35 (9.27) 20.10 (7.50) 21.74 (10.00) 22.97 (4.45) 20.50 (3.99) 22.20 (5.50) 19.20 (2.57) <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) % 79.0 (22.0) 90.0 (24.0) 69.0 (16.5) 79.0 (19.5) 75.5 (12.3) 71.0 (12.0) 78.0 (11.0) 69.0 (8.4) <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mm HG) 125 (23) 123 (23) 118 (22) 129 (32) 118 (22) 131 (28) 124 (15) 134 (22) <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm HG) 81 (15) 81 (15) 75 (13) 83 (28) 70 (15) 85 (18) 79 (15) 85 (16) <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.90 (1.76) 5.18 (1.89) 4.66 (1.47) 5.18 (1.31) 5.29 (1.39) 4.74 (1.16) 1.98 (0.00) 1.98 (0.00) <0.0001
HDL (mmol/L) 1.18 (0.44) 1.36 (0.39) 0.99 (0.36) 1.28 (0.34) 1.16 (0.26) 1.01 (0.32) 0.90 (0.25) 0.95 (0.18) <0.0001
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.23 (0.77) 1.22 (0.76) 1.35 (0.98) 1.47 (1.03) 1.35 (1.02) 1.22 (0.89) 1.33 (1.07) 1.17 (0.52) 0.779
TG/HDL 1.06 (0.86) 0.929 (0.620) 1.227 (1.060) 1.070 (0.770) 1.120 (0.850) 1.273 (1.040) 1.427 (1.200) 1.249 (0.790) <0.0001
HbA1c (mmol/mol); (%) 5.2 (0.6) [33 (4)] 5.3 (0.9) [34 (5)] 5.0 (0.4) [31 (2)] 5.2 (0.5) [33 (3)] 5.1 (0.6) [32 (3)] 5.3 (0.5) [34 (3)] 4.9 (0.6) [30 (4)] 5.3 (0.3) [34 (2)] <0.0001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.08 (1.12) 5.28 (0.82) 4.16 (0.94) 4.90 (1.00) 4.89 (0.85) 5.10 (1.30)§ 4.46 (0.87)§ 4.97 (1.29)§ <0.0001
HOMA-IR 3.20 (3.80) 3.15 (3.78) 2.40 (3.20) 3.10 (3.50) N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.120
  1. §Random plasma glucose.
  2. Data expressed as median (interquartile range) with the exception of HbA1c expressed as Median HbA1c%(IQR) [Median mmol/mol (IQR)].
  3. Data calculated using IBM Statistics SPSS v21.0.