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Table 3 Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in various socio-economic groups

From: Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization

Risk factors Overall Socio-economic groups
   UCFD RC DFHG
HOMA-IR 61.8 ± 4.9 58.1 ± 6.1 55.3 ± 9.1 68.1 ± 7.1
(≥2.6) %     
Obesity 16.8 ± 3.0 31.6 ± 5.7 12.0 ± 4.9 2.0 ± 2.0
(>30 kg/m2) %
Abdominal Obesity 38.4 ± 3.4 66.10 ± 5.9 14.9 ± 5.0 23.0 ± 5.9
(M: Waist >90 cm
F: Waist >80 cm) %
Hypertension 29.6 ± 3.6 29.4 ± 5.6 17.4 ± 5.9 39.2 ± 7.0
(≥140/90 mmHg) %
Reduced HDL-C 45.8 ± 3.9 24.5 ± 5.3 49.5 ± 7.1 68.4 ± 6.6
(M: < 1.0 mmol/L
F: < 1.3 mmol/L) %
Elevated TG 23.9 ± 3.3 22.5 ± 5.1 24.6 ± 6.2 25.0 ± 6.2
(≥1.7 mmol/L) %
IFG 7.4 ± 2.4 9.9 ± 3.7 4.0 ± 2.9 N/A
(FPG 6.1 mmol/L to 6.9 mmol/L) %
High HbA1c 8.8 ± 2.2 18.2 ± 4.8 3.6 ± 2.9 2.2 ± 2.2
(≥42 mmol/mol [6.0%]) %
Pre-diabetes 4.2 ± 1.6 9.1 ± 3.6 1.2 ± 1.7 1.1 ± 1.5
(HbA1c 6.0% - 6.4%) %
Diabetes mellitus 4.6 ± 1.6 9.1 ± 3.6 2.4 ± 2.3 1.1 ± 1.5
(HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) %
  1. Highest prevalence recorded in bold numbers.
  2. Data expressed as prevalence at 95% CI using IBM Statistics SPSS v21.0.