Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of recommended and not recommended feeding practices, by socio-economic resources in Nicaragua

From: Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua

    WHO feeding indicators1    
  Exclusive
breast feeding
0–5 m
Continued
breast feeding
12–15 m
Minimum dietary diversity2
6-35 m
Minimum meal frequency3
6-35 m
Minimum acceptable diet
6–35 m
Highly processed snacks
6–35 m
Sugar-sweetened
beverages
6–35 m
Double burden of suboptimal feeding4
6-35 m
Socio-economic resources % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N)
All 34 (209) 78 (162) 67 (1135) 61 (1125) 40 (1125) 59 (1135) 36 (1135) 38 (1135)
Housing quality5         
  Lowest 39 (30/78) 81 (47/58) 62 (274/445) 61 (267/437) 37 (163/437) 54 (242/445) 32 (143/445) 38 (168/445)
  Middle 37 (28/75) 74 (46/62) 69 (298/431) 61 (263/430) 41 (177/430) 62 (265/431) 36 (155/431) 38 (164/431)
  Highest 24 (14/58) 79 (33/42) 71 (188/264) 58 (153/262) 44 (114/262) 61 (162/264) 41 (108/264) 37 (98/264)
  p = 0.17 p = 0.66 p = 0.012 p = 0.73 p = 0.24 p = 0.062 p = 0.061 p = 0.97
Maternal education5         
  <5 years 49 (30/61) 80 (51/64) 64 (270/421) 64 (265/416) 39 (163/416) 56 (234/421) 34 (144/421) 36 (151/421)
  5-9 years 37 (32/87) 76 (54/71) 65 (321/494) 61 (297/490) 40 (198/490) 57 (282/494) 34 (169/494) 37 (184/494)
  ≥10 years 16 (10/61) 78 (21/27) 76 (166/220) 54 (118/219) 41 (90/219) 69 (151/220) 42 (92/220) 43 (95/220)
  p = 0.001 p = 0.88 p = 0.009 p = 0.06 p = 0.88 p = 0.004 p = 0.107 p = 0.18
Household food insecurity5         
  Highest 41 (28/69) 78 (40/51) 59 (220/372) 63 (229/365) 37 (134/365) 55 (203/372) 30 (110/372) 38 (141/372)
  Middle 34 (24/71) 73 (45/62) 68 (259/383) 63 (238/381) 42 (160/381) 57 (217/383) 37 (140/383) 36 (138/383)
  Lowest 28 (20/71) 84 (41/49) 73 (281/385) 56 (216/383) 42 (160/383) 65 (249/385) 41 (156/385) 39 (151/385)
  p = 0.30 p = 0.37 p = <0.001 p = 0.13 p = 0.25 p = 0.011 p = 0.006 p = 0.66
  1. WHO, World Health Organization; 1Values are (%) percentages and (n/N); 2Criteria based on consumption of at least one food item of four of the seven food groups during the past day; 3Based on WHO guidelines considering age and breastfeeding status; 4Based on children who had at least one unmet WHO complementary feeding practice and who also consumed at least one highly processed snack or at least one sugar-sweetened beverage; 5n/N-values may be larger in housing quality and household food insecurity analyses; Pearson’s chi-squared test was utilized to find differences of feeding practices, children´s consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages and children´s exposure to a double burden of suboptimal feeding by the socio-economic resources; Significance level at <0.05.