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Table 1 General characteristics of the study population (n=222,242)

From: Household and area income levels are associated with smoking status in the Korean adult population

Characteristics Men Women
Urban Rural Urban Rural
(n=57,411) (n=45,713) (n=65,664) (n=53,454)
Age (years) 45.4± 15.1 52.8 ± 16.3 46.3 ± 16.1 55.4 ± 17.1
Smoking status   
Never smokers 14,746 (27.2) 11,796 (26.4) 61,998 (94.6) 50,734 (94.8)
Former smokers 15,290 (24.7) 12,894 (24.8) 1,136 (1.7) 825 (1.6)
Current smokers 27,375 (48.1) 21,023 (48.8) 2,530 (3.7) 1,895 (3.6)
Household income (won)   
3 million 20,695 (38.7) 9,187 (24.8) 22,628 (37.4) 9,533 (22.3)
<3 million 14,364 (25.6) 8,781 (22.1) 15,416 (24.0) 9,029 (19.6)
<2 million 13,843 (23.4) 12,110 (27.6) 15,092 (22.6) 12,364 (24.7)
<1 million 8,509 (12.3) 15,635 (25.5) 12,528 (16.0) 22,528 (33.4)
Marital status     
Married/partnered 39,607 (65.3) 33,796 (67.8) 41,177 (62.1) 33,988 (63.8)
Never married/non-partnered 17,762 (34.7) 11,862 (32.2) 24,436 (37.9) 19,429 (36.2)
Family type     
One generation 14,713 (22.3) 20,111 (34,2) 16,481 (21.8) 24,669 (36.9)
Two generation 36,532 (66.8) 19,462 (51.4) 40,532 (65.1) 20,912 (47.3)
Over three generation 6,161 (10.9) 6,139 (14.4) 8,643 (13.1) 7,871 (15.8)
Monthly alcohol intake 42,390 (75.5) 29,500 (67.9) 25,371 (40.7) 14,570 (31.1)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 5.7 25.2 ± 12.2 23.4 ± 9.3 28.3 ± 20.3
Stress perception 17,049 (30.6) 10,152 (25.4) 18,559 (28.8) 13,051 (26.2)
Depressive mood perception 3,202 (5.4) 2,267 (5.2) 6,493 (9.8) 4,760 (9.2)
Self-rated health status (average or good) 28,017 (51.1) 20,269 (48.6) 26,939 (43.4) 17,664 (37.0)
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation) or unweighted number (weighted percent).
  2. Monthly drinking was defined as drinking alcohol at least once per month in the previous year. Self-rated health was categorized as average or good (very good, fairly good, and average) and poor (fairly poor and poor). Stress perception was measured with a 4-point scale and categorized as either high or low. Perception of depressive mood was categorized as either “yes” or “no”.