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Table 3 Association of smoking related factors with the risk of adolescents’ cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia

From: Prevalence and predictors of adolescents’ cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study

  Smokers (n = 504) Non-smoker (n = 2818) OR 95% CI
Parents smoking     
No 393 2254 1.00 Ref.
One parent 135 526 1.69 1.35-2.10
Both 26 38 4.50 2.70-7.50
Friends smoking     
No 94 1799 1.00 Ref.
Some 233 780 4.70 4.43-7.36
Most or all 127 239 14.10 10.6-18.8
Belief that smoking is harmful     
No 96 247 1.00 Ref.
Yes 408 2571 0.40 0.32-0.53
Belief that smokers have more friends     
No 196 962 1.00 Ref.
Yes 308 1856 1.22 1.00-1.49
Have seen cigarette advertisements in mass media     
No 499 2319 1.00 Ref.
Yes 123 381 1.50 1.19-1.87