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Table 3 Association between body mass index or other factors, and back pain among adults aged 50 years or over estimated by multivariable logistic regression

From: The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: a cross-sectional study

    COURAGE survey SAGE survey
Characteristic Reference   Finland Poland Spain China Ghana India Mexico Russia S. Africa
BMI (kg/m2) 18.5-24.9 25.0-29.9 1.19 1.40* 1.23 0.96 0.90 1.01 1.54 1.51* 1.08
    (0.85-1.67) (1.07-1.83) (0.95-1.59) (0.85-1.08) (0.72-1.13) (0.76-1.34) (0.86-2.75) (1.05-2.16) (0.81-1.44)
   30.0-34.9 1.39 1.47* 1.13 1.08 1.23 0.96 1.41 2.76*** 1.51*
    (0.93-2.06) (1.10-1.96) (0.85-1.51) (0.87-1.34) (0.92-1.64) (0.61-1.51) (0.71-2.78) (1.83-4.17) (1.04-2.20)
   ≥35.0 3.33*** 2.03*** 1.56* 1.00 0.90 1.21 1.17 2.20* 1.48*
    (2.09-5.30) (1.34-3.09) (1.03-2.35) (0.65-1.55) (0.59-1.36) (0.56-2.62) (0.54-2.57) (1.15-4.21) (1.02-2.16)
Age (years) 50-59 60-69 0.97 1.40** 1.15 1.17** 1.14 1.20 1.21 1.81** 1.35*
    (0.69-1.36) (1.10-1.78) (0.88-1.51) (1.05-1.31) (0.95-1.36) (0.95-1.52) (0.73-2.00) (1.23-2.67) (1.04-1.75)
   70-79 1.24 1.66** 1.13 1.06 1.29* 1.41* 1.25 3.11*** 1.57*
    (0.79-1.94) (1.14-2.40) (0.87-1.46) (0.92-1.22) (1.01-1.66) (1.01-1.96) (0.74-2.11) (1.99-4.86) (1.10-2.24)
   ≥80 1.16 1.75** 1.18 0.95 1.05 1.43 1.30 3.53*** 1.56
    (0.68-2.00) (1.20-2.55) (0.81-1.70) (0.67-1.34) (0.75-1.47) (0.91-2.25) (0.62-2.74) (1.88-6.64) (0.89-2.74)
Sex Male Female 1.53** 1.45** 2.54*** 1.84*** 1.32** 2.00*** 2.80*** 1.40 1.37*
    (1.17-1.99) (1.14-1.84) (2.05-3.15) (1.58-2.15) (1.10-1.59) (1.56-2.58) (1.59-4.91) (0.93-2.10) (1.02-1.86)
Education ≥Tertiary Secondary 1.03 1.35 0.98 1.40 0.97 1.29 1.67 1.47* 1.52
    (0.78-1.34) (0.98-1.85) (0.68-1.40) (0.96-2.04) (0.58-1.63) (0.80-2.08) (0.59-4.71) (1.04-2.08) (0.79-2.90)
   ≤Primary 0.96 1.50* 1.32 1.72* 1.09 1.79* 1.31 1.67 2.01*
    (0.66-1.38) (1.02-2.20) (0.89-1.98) (1.10-2.68) (0.66-1.82) (1.14-2.83) (0.51-3.34) (0.97-2.85) (1.04-3.90)
Wealth Middle Poorest 0.75 1.06 0.83 1.23 0.55*** 1.01 2.26* 0.83 0.97
    (0.49-1.14) (0.76-1.49) (0.61-1.12) (0.97-1.57) (0.41-0.74) (0.70-1.47) (1.17-4.35) (0.52-1.33) (0.66-1.42)
   Poorer 0.98 1.11 0.92 1.07 0.71* 0.79 0.59 0.79 1.20
    (0.66-1.44) (0.76-1.62) (0.72-1.18) (0.86-1.33) (0.54-0.94) (0.55-1.13) (0.30-1.13) (0.42-1.48) (0.78-1.85)
   Richer 0.79 0.73 0.88 0.76* 0.76* 1.18 0.93 0.82 0.93
    (0.54-1.15) (0.52-1.03) (0.61-1.26) (0.58-1.00) (0.58-0.99) (0.80-1.76) (0.49-1.75) (0.43-1.56) (0.64-1.37)
   Richest 0.65 0.85 0.77 0.68** 0.64*** 0.74 1.73 1.01 1.03
    (0.40-1.05) (0.60-1.22) (0.57-1.04) (0.52-0.89) (0.50-0.83) (0.53-1.03) (0.82-3.68) (0.58-1.75) (0.64-1.66)
Depression No Yes 2.51* 5.23*** 2.51*** 3.08*** 6.74*** 2.40*** 2.09* 7.66*** 3.89***
    (1.26-5.02) (3.05-8.98) (1.75-3.58) (2.07-4.57) (4.33-10.47) (1.82-3.16) (1.07-4.10) (2.47-23.73) (1.84-8.22)
Physical activity High Moderate 0.81 0.96 0.85 0.99 0.78 0.80 0.90 1.06 1.69*
    (0.61-1.07) (0.72-1.28) (0.67-1.07) (0.85-1.16) (0.57-1.06) (0.64-1.00) (0.50-1.64) (0.72-1.55) (1.10-2.61)
   Low 1.21 0.82 1.33* 0.89 0.83 1.05 0.74 0.72 1.33
    (0.86-1.69) (0.62-1.09) (1.02-1.73) (0.73-1.09) (0.64-1.07) (0.79-1.39) (0.44-1.25) (0.48-1.07) (0.94-1.88)
Smoking status Never Smoker 1.46 1.12 1.11 1.28** 0.94 1.18 1.93 1.30 1.14
    (0.97-2.21) (0.83-1.50) (0.86-1.43) (1.08-1.52) (0.70-1.27) (0.93-1.50) (0.98-3.82) (0.73-2.33) (0.80-1.64)
   Quit 1.34* 1.30 1.19 1.32* 1.25 1.33 1.58 1.79 0.84
    (1.01-1.77) (0.98-1.72) (0.85-1.65) (1.02-1.71) (0.95-1.64) (0.76-2.35) (0.82-3.05) (0.95-3.36) (0.52-1.34)
Alcohol Never Non-heavy 0.76 1.16 1.05 1.21* 0.90 1.25 1.39 1.85** 1.17
consumption    (0.47-1.22) (0.86-1.57) (0.74-1.47) (1.00-1.45) (0.75-1.09) (0.92-1.69) (0.81-2.39) (1.23-2.77) (0.85-1.62)
   Heavy 0.85 1.90* 0.99 1.10 0.58 0.85 1.38 3.08** 1.69
    (0.46-1.58) (1.09-3.30) (0.40-2.47) (0.83-1.45) (0.32-1.03) (0.24-3.04) (0.40-4.80) (1.45-6.56) (0.90-3.17)
  1. Abbreviations: COURAGE Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe, SAGE WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, S. Africa South Africa, BMI Body Mass Index.
  2. Data are adjusted OR (95% confidence intervals). Models are adjusted for all covariates in the table.
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.