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Table 2 Characteristics of the study sample by presence of back pain

From: The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: a cross-sectional study

  COURAGE survey SAGE survey
  Finland Poland Spain China Ghana India Mexico Russia S. Africa
Back pain No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
BMI (kg/m2)                   
<18.5 0.6 0.2 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.6 4.4 3.9 15.1 15.3 37.7 40.5 0.6 0.5 1.5 0.8 3.1 3.4
18.5-24.9 33.9 26.8 28.2 20.8 23.7 20.7 60.0 62.3 54.8 55.6 48.8 47.0 21.4 20.4 28.8 19.3 24.6 21.4
25.0-29.9 42.5 39.2 39.4 39.6 45.3 44.8 29.8 27.7 20.3 18.9 10.9 10.0 50.4 48.1 43.1 38.7 28.4 23.3
30.0-34.9 18.0 20.8 23.9 27.0 24.0 23.4 4.9 5.1 5.9 7.0 1.8 1.4 19.7 23.8 16.1 28.6 22.1 23.8
≥35.0 5.0 13.0 7.1 11.7 6.4 10.4 0.9 1.0 3.9 3.3 0.7 1.1 7.9 7.2 10.7 12.5 21.9 28.1
Age (years)                   
50-59 34.5 31.3 43.5 34.4 34.8 29.0 46.4 41.2 42.0 36.6 51.3 44.4 52.3 43.3 53.7 37.8 52.9 44.7
60-69 35.8 35.2 31.4 34.1 28.9 27.4 31.1 34.6 27.5 27.6 30.2 32.0 23.2 30.4 23.6 25.4 29.3 33.4
70-79 19.3 21.6 17.7 21.6 27.2 32.0 18.3 19.7 21.1 25.8 14.1 18.8 17.5 18.5 15.8 26.9 13.3 14.8
≥80 10.5 11.9 7.4 9.9 9.2 11.6 4.2 4.5 9.4 10.1 4.3 4.8 7.0 7.7 6.9 9.9 4.5 7.1
Female 49.7 60.4 52.5 59.5 43.4 66.1 48.1 58.3 45.0 51.7 41.9 60.0 49.9 59.7 58.9 62.7 52.7 61.4
Education                   
≥Tertiary 27.5 23.4 19.0 13.3 13.4 7.6 5.1 2.3 4.1 2.9 7.0 2.2 9.0 6.5 22.8 14.4 7.1 3.7
Secondary 56.1 57.9 60.4 58.4 28.7 21.9 34.4 26.1 22.8 18.7 21.9 14.0 9.9 16.6 72.1 76.1 24.5 20.0
≤Primary 16.4 18.7 20.6 28.3 57.9 70.5 60.5 71.6 73.1 78.4 71.1 83.8 81.1 76.9 5.1 9.5 68.3 76.3
Wealth                   
Poorest 22.2 24.5 20.9 27.8 22.0 22.7 14.8 22.2 20.2 15.5 16.1 21.4 11.6 21.7 16.3 16.0 20.7 19.3
Poorer 25.6 29.8 21.4 18.6 21.4 26.8 17.3 21.4 18.5 20.0 19.7 19.2 21.4 14.9 21.4 19.3 21.4 21.2
Middle 18.6 20.8 17.6 18.9 19.2 21.5 19.9 21.6 17.8 24.5 18.3 19.6 18.0 13.9 17.6 20.5 18.7 18.5
Richer 18.3 14.8 26.8 19.2 19.9 17.6 24.3 19.4 20.6 20.6 18.6 21.3 17.4 15.5 22.9 18.8 19.3 21.0
Richest 15.3 10.1 19.6 15.5 17.6 11.5 23.7 15.4 22.9 19.3 27.4 18.5 22.5 34.1 23.3 25.4 22.1 20.0
Depression 10.5 23.4 5.9 19.2 18.0 36.6 0.9 2.9 2.8 15.6 11.9 22.3 14.1 21.9 2.3 8.5 2.7 8.0
Physical activity                   
High 43.2 39.6 47.4 49.5 32.3 28.5 43.7 47.0 59.9 64.6 52.8 51.4 40.5 39.1 57.0 58.3 30.0 25.7
Moderate 33.5 28.6 19.3 19.9 41.5 33.3 27.7 26.9 13.5 11.1 23.9 21.0 22.1 23.0 15.0 16.5 11.8 13.2
Low 23.3 31.8 33.3 30.6 26.2 38.2 28.6 26.0 26.7 24.3 23.3 27.6 37.4 37.9 28.0 25.2 58.2 61.1
Smoking status                   
Never 35.4 35.5 45.7 43.8 47.9 60.0 63.6 65.6 75.2 75.1 44.5 46.5 63.1 56.2 71.8 67.7 66.6 67.1
Current 17.0 17.6 27.2 25.2 22.0 17.2 29.8 27.8 10.9 10.4 51.1 48.4 18.4 23.7 21.0 21.7 22.9 25.3
Quit 47.6 46.9 27.1 30.9 30.2 22.9 6.6 6.5 13.9 14.5 4.4 5.1 18.5 20.1 7.2 10.6 10.6 7.6
Alcohol consumption                   
Never 8.8 11.5 15.4 14.7 27.6 35.6 67.5 67.3 42.1 45.2 84.5 86.1 48.9 48.9 32.9 25.7 76.8 76.1
Non-heavy 77.4 74.8 79.1 77.9 69.5 62.7 25.4 26.0 55.4 53.1 14.9 13.3 46.4 46.1 62.5 68.6 20.2 19.2
Heavy 13.8 13.7 5.5 7.4 2.9 1.7 7.1 6.6 2.5 1.6 0.6 0.6 4.7 5.0 4.6 5.7 3.1 4.7
  1. Abbreviations: COURAGE Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe, SAGE WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, S. Africa South Africa, BMI Body Mass Index.
  2. Data are %. Prevalence based on weighted sample.