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Table 5 Summary of impact on educational outcomes

From: The World Health Organization’s Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

Study reference Intervention type Authors’ conclusions
Li 2011 [62] Multiple Risk Behaviour Positive intervention effects found for: student disaffection with learning (P < 0.01); teachers’ ratings of academic motivation (P < 0.05); absenteeism rates (P < 0.05)
No effect found for: teachers’ ratings of academic performance; standardised test scores for reading and maths
Beets 2009 [59] Multiple Risk Behaviour Positive intervention effects found for: standardised test scores for reading and maths (P = 0.043 and 0.006, respectively); absenteeism (P = 0.001); suspensions (P = 0.028); student, teacher and parent ‘School Quality Composite’ scores (P = 0.015, 0.006 and 0.007, respectively)
No effect found for: student retentions in grade
Fekkes 2006 [74] Anti-bullying No effect found for: general satisfaction with school life; satisfaction with contact with other pupils; or satisfaction with contact with teachers
Bond 2004 [68] Mental health Positive intervention effect found for: school attachment (Adj. OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.75; un-adjusted OR non-significant)
Sahota 2001 [47] Physical Activity and Nutrition No effect found for: self-perceived scholastic competence
Sawyer 2010 [69] Mental health Positive intervention effect found for: teacher ratings of school climate over time (intervention x time β = 0.43, P < 0.05)
No effect found for: student rating of school climate
Bowen 2007 [79] Hand hygiene Positive intervention effect found for: attendance. Intervention schools (expanded group) experienced 42% fewer absence episodes (P = .03) and 54% fewer days of absence (P = .03) than control schools
Talaat 2011 [80] Hand hygiene Positive intervention effect found for: attendance. Overall, absences caused by illness were reduced by 21% in intervention schools (5.7 vs. 7.2 median episodes, P < 0.001)
Simons-Morton 2005 [65] Multiple Risk Behaviour No effect found for: students’ perceptions of school climate
McVey 2004 [82] Eating disorders No effect found for: teachers’ perceptions of school climate
Kärnä 2011 [76] Anti-bullying Positive intervention effect found for: well-being at school in intervention students (0.096, P = 0.011)