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Table 3 Characteristics of the trials included in the review, by intervention focus

From: The World Health Organization’s Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Name Review outcomes Country Target group Duration for study design Theory
Nutrition Interventions
Anderson 2005 [19] - Nutrition UK 6-7 and 10–11 year- olds 8 months Health Promoting Schools framework
Bere 2006 [20] Fruits and Vegetables Make the Mark Nutrition Norway Grade 6 6 months Social cognitive theory
Evans 2013 [21] Project Tomato Nutrition UK Year 2 10 months Framework for health maintenance behaviour
Foster 2008 [22] School Nutrition Policy Initiative Obesity/overweight, Nutrition USA Grades 4-6 2 years None stated
Hoffman 2010 [23] Athletes in Service, Fruit and Vegetable Promotion Program Nutrition USA Kindergarten and Grade 1 2.5 years Social learning theory
Hoppu 2010 [24] - Nutrition Finland Grade 8 8 months Social cognitive theory
Lytle 2004 [25] TEENS Nutrition USA Grades 7-8 2 years Social cognitive theory
Nicklas 1998 [26] Gimme 5 Nutrition USA Grade 9 3 years PRECEDE Model of Health Education
Perry 1998 [27] 5 A DAY Power Plus Nutrition USA Grades 4-5 6 months Social learning theory
Radcliffe 2005 [28] - Nutrition Australia Grade 7 11 months Health Promoting Schools framework
Reynolds 2000 [29] High 5 Nutrition USA Grade 4 1 year Social cognitive theory
Te Velde 2008 [30] Pro Children Study Nutrition Netherlands, Norway, Spain Grades 5-6 2 years Social cognitive theory, Ecological model
Physical Activity Interventions
Eather 2013 [31] Fit-4-Fun Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity Australia Grades 5-6 8 weeks Health Promoting Schools framework, Social cognitive Theory, Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory
Kriemler 2010 [32] KISS Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity Switzerland Grades 1 and 5 11 months None stated
Simon 2006 [33] ICAPS Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity France Grade 6 4 years “Theory based” but no details of a named theory provided
Wen 2008 [34] - Physical Activity Australia Years 4-5 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework
Physical Activity + Nutrition Interventions
Arbeit 1992 [35] Heart Smart Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Grades 4-5 2.5 years Social cognitive theory
Brandstetter 2012 [36] URMEL ICE Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition Germany Grade 2 9 months Social cognitive theory
Caballero 2003 [37] Pathways Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Grade 3 3 years Social learning theory
Colín-Ramírez 2010 [38] RESCATE Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition Mexico Grades 4-5 1 year None stated
Crespo 2012 [39] Aventuras para Niños Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Kindergarten-Grade 2 5 semesters Social ecological theory, Social cognitive theory, Health belief model, structural model of health behavior
Foster 2010 [40] HEALTHY Obesity/overweight USA Grades 6-8 3 years None stated
Grydeland 2013 [41] Health in Adolescents (HEIA) Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition Norway Grade 6 20 months Socio-ecological framework
Haerens 2006 [42] - Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity Belgium Grades 7-8 2 years Theory of planned behaviour, Transtheoretical model, Social cognitive theory, Attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) model
Jansen 2011 [43] Lekker Fit Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity Netherlands Grades 3-8 8 months Theory of planned behaviour, Ecological model
Llargues 2011 [44] AVall Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition Spain 5-6 year olds 2 years Educational methodology ‘IVAC’
Luepker 1996 [45] CATCH Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Grade 3 3 years Social cognitive theory, Social learning theory
Rush 2012 [46] Project Energize Obesity/overweight New Zealand 5 and 10 year olds 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework
Sahota 2001 [47] APPLES Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition UK Years 4-5 10 months Health Promoting Schools framework
Sallis 2003 [48] M-SPAN Physical Acivity, Nutrition USA Grades 6-8 2 years Ecological model
Shamah Levy 2012 [49] Nutrición en Movimiento Obesity/overweight, Nutrition Mexico Grade 5 6 months Not explicitly theory-based, but mentions use of theory of peer learning for one element of the intervention (puppet theatre)
Trevino 2004 [50] Bienestar (1) Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Grade 4 5 months Social cognitive theory, Social ecological theory
Trevino 2005 [51] Bienestar (2) Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity USA Grade 4 8 months Social cognitive theory
Williamson 2012 [52] Louisiana (LA) HEALTH Obesity/overweight, Physical Activity, Nutrition USA Grades 4-6 2.5 years Social learning theory
Tobacco Interventions
De Vries (Denmark) 2003 [53] ESFA (Denmark) Tobacco Denmark Grade 7 3 years Attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) model
De Vries (Finland) 2003 [53] ESFA (Finland) Tobacco Finland Grade 7 3 years Attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) model
Hamilton 2005 [54] - Tobacco Australia Grade 9 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework
Perry 2009 [55] Project MYTRI Tobacco India Grades 6-8 2 years Social cognitive theory, social influences model
Wen 2010 [56] - Tobacco China Grades 7-8 2 years Socio-ecological framework, PRECEDE-PROCEED model
Alcohol Interventions
Komro 2008 [57] Project Northland (Chicago) Alcohol, Tobacco, Drugs USA Grade 6-8 3 years Theory of triadic influence
Perry 1996 [58] Project Northland (Minnesota) Alcohol, Tobacco, Drugs USA Grades 6-8 3 years Social learning theory
Multiple Risk Behaviour Interventions
Beets 2009 [59] Positive Action (Hawai’i) Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, violence, sexual health, academic and school-related outcomes USA Grades 2-3 3 years Theory of self-concept, Theory of triadic influence
Eddy 2003 [60] LIFT Tobacco, alcohol, drugs USA Grades 1 and 5 10 weeks Coercion theory
Flay 2004 [61] Aban Aya Violence, drugs, sexual health USA Grade 5 4 years Theory of triadic influence
Li 2011 [62] Positive Action (Chicago) Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, violence, academic and school-related outcomes USA Grade 3 6 years Theory of self-concept, Theory of triadic influence
Perry 2003 [63] DARE Plus Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, violence USA Grade 7 2 years Theory of triadic influence
Schofield 2003 [64] Hunter Region Health Promoting Schools Program Tobacco Australia Years 7-8 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework Community Organization Theory
Simons-Morton 2005 [65] Going Places Tobacco, alcohol USA Grades 6-8 3 years Social cognitive theory
Sexual health Interventions
Basen-Engquist 2001 [66] Safer Choices Sexual health USA Grade 9 2 years Social cognitive theory, social influence theory and models of school change
Ross 2007 [67] MEMA Kwa Vijana Sexual health Tanzania Students aged 14+ years 3 years Social learning theory
Mental Health and Emotional Well-being Interventions
Bond 2004 [68] Gatehouse Project Mental health and emotional well-being, tobacco, drugs, bullying Australia Grade 8 3 years Health Promoting schools framework, attachment theory
Sawyer 2010 [69] beyondblue Mental health and emotional well-being Australia Year 8 3 years Health Promoting Schools framework
Violence Prevention Interventions
Orpinas 2000 [70] Students for Peace Violence USA Grades 6-8 3 semesters Social cognitive theory
Wolfe 2009 [71] Fourth R Violence, sexual health Canada Grade 9 15 weeks None stated
Anti-bullying Interventions
Cross 2011 [72] Friendly Schools Bullying Australia Grade 4 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework, Social cognitive theory, Ecological theory, Social control theory, Health belief model, Problem behaviour theory
Cross 2012 [73] Friendly Schools, Friendly Families Bullying Australia Grades 2, 4 and 6 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework
Fekkes 2006 [74] - Bullying Netherlands 9-12 year-olds 2 years No specific theory but based on Olweus bullying programme
Frey 2005 [75] Steps to Respect Bullying USA Grades 3-6 1 year None stated
Kärnä 2011 [76] KiVa (1) Bullying Finland Grade 4-6 9 months Social cognitive theory
Kärnä 2013 [77] KiVa (2) Bullying Finland Grade 1–3 and 7-9 9 months Social cognitive theory
Stevens 2000 [78] - Bullying Belgium 10 to 16 year-olds Not clear Social learning theory
Hand-washing Interventions
Bowen 2007 [79] - Illness from infectious diseases China Grade 1 5 months None stated
Talaat 2011 [80] - Illness from infectious diseases Egypt Grades 1–3 (for data collection, but all children in school targeted) 12 weeks None stated
Miscellaneous Interventions
Hall 2004 [81] School Bicycle Safety Project/The Helmet Files Safety/accidents Australia Grade 5 2 years Health Promoting Schools framework
McVey 2004 [82] Healthy Schools- Healthy Kids Body image Canada Grade 6-7 8 months Health Promoting Schools framework, Ecological approach
Olson 2007 [83] SunSafe Sun safety USA Grades 6-8 3 years Social cognitive theory, Socio-ecological theory, Protection motivation theory
Tai 2009 [84] - Oral health China Grade 1 3 years Health Promoting Schools framework
  1. BMI = Body Mass Index; zBMI = Body Mass Index, standardised for age and gender.
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