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Table 2 The monitoring and evaluation domain of good practice characteristics for interventions and policies aiming at dietary behavior and physical activity change

From: Good practice characteristics of diet and physical activity interventions and policies: an umbrella review

Good practice category Systematic reviews, stakeholders’ documents, and position reviews endorsing respective characteristics
Good practice characteristics
Costs and funding  
Costs in relation to obtained general health benefits (including population health changes, morbidity, quality of life, etc.) Systematic reviews [111-113]; Stakeholders’ documents [46,76,114].
Costs related to behavior change (e.g., costs of an hour of PA gained per person) Systematic reviews [39,51,95,107,111,112,115]; Stakeholders’ documents [46,76,114]; Position reviews [116].
Total financial costs of interventions/policies (total budget per participant) Systematic reviews [53,95,101,111,112,115,117]; Stakeholders’ documents [45]; Position reviews [8,48,60,78];
Outcomes  
Outcomes measured with valid, reliable, and sensitive tools Systematic reviews: Indicated in all included systematic reviews; Stakeholders’ documents [14,44,62].
Effects specified as clinically significant (e.g., moving from sedentary to physically active) Systematic reviews [53,57,67,96,113,117]; Stakeholders’ documents [10,14,45]; Position reviews [47,79,116].
Effects on public health-relevant secondary outcomes (proximal, e.g., weight loss, and distal, e.g., heart disease morbidity) Systematic reviews [55,59,74,81,111]; Stakeholders’ documents [14,45,46,118,119];
Negative consequences (or risks) evaluated Systematic reviews [59,94,101,111,117,120]; Stakeholders’ documents [14,45,106,119]; Position reviews: [8,77,78].
Measured outcomes include physiological risk factor indices (e.g., BMI, cholesterol) Systematic reviews [32,68,99,104,121].
Effects’ evaluation: time and effect size  
Efficiency established and reported (significant effects established in prior trials) Systematic reviews Indicated in all included systematic reviews; Stakeholders’ documents [44,114,119]; Position reviews [107].
Sustainable effects (mid-term effects [>6 months] and long term effects [>12 months]) Systematic reviews [53,55,59,93-95,99,100,102,104,120,122]; Stakeholders’ documents [10,14,106,118,119]; Position reviews [8,47,86].
Effect sizes (besides significant effects) Systematic reviews [23,28,31,36,75,92,99,122]; Stakeholders’ documents [44,45,63,63 separate for intervention and policies]; Position reviews [60,88].
Reach  
Reach (the strategy is likely to involve a large percentage of the target population; reaching entire target population) Systematic reviews [53,59,94,100,107,112,117,123]; Stakeholders’ documents [10,44,63,83,118,119]; Position reviews [8,26,48,86].
Inclusiveness: health, age, and gender contexts (individuals with low mobility or comorbidities participate; including people of different age within target group) Systematic reviews [53,59,94,100,107,112,117,123]; Stakeholders’ documents [14,44,45,46,62,63,63 (separate entries for intervention and policies), 106]; Position reviews [47,87].
Cultural competence and social inclusion of interventions/policies (accounts for cultural/minority issues in: recruitment processes, content, setting; familiarity with health practices in respective social/cultural groups) Systematic reviews [27,29,40,53,59,94,100,101,109,112,117,123]; Stakeholders’ documents [43,44,76,83,119,124]; Position reviews [49,61].
Participation and generalizability of evaluation  
Generalizability of effects evaluated (effects observed among participants with different characteristics; effects at population level) Systematic reviews [53,67,68,94]; Stakeholders’ documents [118,119].
Participation rates reported (across stages of evaluation) Systematic reviews [39,53,96,117,120]; Stakeholders’ documents [14,44,118,119]; Position reviews [8].
Underlying processes and active components  
Active components identified Systematic reviews [6,23,29,38,111]; Position reviews [88].
Ongoing monitoring and measurement of delivery and monitoring of materials Systematic reviews [59,96,120]; Stakeholders’ documents [14,46,63,85].