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Table 1 Baseline descriptive characteristics of participants across levels of standing time

From: Workplace standing time and the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal study in adults

  Rarely/Never Half of the time Most of the time All the time P
(n = 97) (n = 66) (n = 57) (n = 73)
Age (years) 37.3 ± 14.7 42.2 ± 13.7 42.6 ± 14.0 35.6 ± 12.2 <0.01
Sex      
Men (%) 56 37 37 43  
Women (%) 44 63 63 57 0.04
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 5.5 26.3 ± 6.3 25.1 ± 4.5 25.2 ± 5.6 0.61
Waist circumference (cm) 85.0 ± 14.9 84.4 ± 16.8 82.2 ± 12.6 81.9 ± 15.6 0.53
Weight statusa      
Normal weight (%) 50 52 58 59  
Overweight (%) 35 22 29 26  
Obese (%) 15 26 13 15 0.35
Diabetes statusb      
Normal (%) 84 76 81 95  
IGT (%) 10 20 14 3  
Type 2 diabetes (%) 6 4 5 2 0.08
Smoking habits      
Nonsmoker (%) 84 87 85 79  
Smoker (%) 16 13 15 21 0.64
Total annual family income ($C) 66,848 ± 26,846 54,180 ± 24,886 52,700 ± 21,740 56,323 ± 23,238 <0.01
Energy intake (kcal/day) 2,329 ± 634 2,211 ± 648 2,226 ± 647 2,498 ± 979 0.11
PWC150 (kpm/kg) 9.3 ± 2.9 8.9 ± 2.4 8.5 ± 3.6 9.1 ± 3.2 0.68
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD for continuous variables and percentage (%) for categorical variables. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of variance with continuous variables and by a chi-squared test with categorical variables. aNormal weight (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (body mass index between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2) and obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). bType 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were defined according to the American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organization criteria [26,27]. Abbreviations: IGT impaired glucose tolerance; PWC 150 physical work capacity at a heart rate of 150 bpm.