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Table 16 Homogeneity results for different potential risk of bias variables on four outcome types

From: The effectiveness of community engagement in public health interventions for disadvantaged groups: a meta-analysis

Outcome Risk of bias variable   Model homogeneity
k Between groups Q Within groups Q
(p-value) (p-value)
Health behaviours Comparison group type 7 7.71 (p = .26) 97.14 (p = .51)
Random allocation 3 .14 (p = .93) 95.60 (p = .63)
Overall low risk of bias 2 1.27 (p = .26) 97.45 (p = .64)
Health consequences Comparison group type - Insufficient data
Random allocation - Insufficient data
Overall low risk of bias 2 .18 (p = .67) 36.66 (p = .44)
Participant self-efficacy Comparison group type - Insufficient data
Random allocation - Insufficient data
Overall low risk of bias 2 1.68 (p = .19) 20.33 (p = .31)
Social support Comparison group type - Insufficient data
Random allocation - Insufficient data
Overall low risk of bias 2 .04 (p = .85) 7.19 (p = .21)
  1. Note. k = number of categories in the moderator variable; Between groups Q indicates the extent to which the categories of studies differ from each other; and within groups Q indicates the extent to which the effect size estimates within a category differ from each other.