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Table 2 PsyCap scores and differences in current smoking status, demographic and occupational factors

From: Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

  PsyCap Mean (SD) Self-efficacy Mean (SD) Hope Mean (SD) Resilience Mean (SD) Optimism Mean (SD)
Smoking status      
 Current smoker 4.29 (0.77) 4.28 (0.90) 4.27 (0.86) 4.31 (0.85) 4.29 (0.93)
 Current nonsmoker 4.27 (0.81) 4.26 (0.93) 4.27 (0.90) 4.26 (0.93) 4.32 (0.94)
Age (years)      
 ≤35 4.17 (0.80)** 4.17 (0.96)** 4.18 (0.90)** 4.18 (0.90)** 4.15 (0.98)**
 36–45 4.36 (0.76) 4.36 (0.85) 4.33 (0.86) 4.36 (0.88) 4.40 (0.89)
 ≥46 4.29 (0.79) 4.25 (0.94) 4.28 (0.88) 4.30 (0.88) 4.34 (0.93)
Marital status      
 Single/Divorced/Widowed/Separated 4.20 (0.80)* 4.20 (0.95) 4.22 (0.90) 4.19 (0.88)* 4.20 (0.95)*
 Married/Cohabiting 4.29 (0.78) 4.29 (0.90) 4.28 (0.88) 4.31 (0.89) 4.33 (0.93)
Education      
 Junior high school or under 4.26 (0.74) 4.24 (0.87) 4.25 (0.83) 4.27 (0.84) 4.29 (0.90)
 Senior high school/Technical secondary school or above 4.30 (0.82) 4.30 (0.95) 4.29 (0.92) 4.30 (0.93) 4.32 (0.96)
Job rank      
 Head miner 4.40 (0.80) 4.37 (0.91) 4.39 (0.86) 4.41 (0.89) 4.45 (0.91)
 Staff miner 4.25 (0.78)** 4.25 (0.91)* 4.24 (0.88)** 4.26 (0.89)** 4.27 (0.94)**
Occupational category      
 Mining/Tunneling 4.24 (0.81)** 4.21 (0.94)** 4.24 (0.90) 4.24 (0.90)* 4.26 (0.96)*
 Supporting 4.34 (0.76) 4.34 (0.88) 4.31 (0.84) 4.34 (0.87) 4.36 (0.90)
ERI      
 Low 4.47 (0.76) 4.43 (0.86) 4.47 (0.84) 4.45 (0.85) 4.52 (0.88)
 Intermediate 4.31 (0.76) 4.30 (0.91) 4.29 (0.85) 4.31 (0.85) 4.36 (0.87)
 High 4.07 (0.80)** 4.08 (0.94)** 4.04 (0.89)** 4.11(0.93)** 4.04 (0.99)**
PPE      
 Low 4.31 (0.76) 4.27 (0.88) 4.32 (0.86) 4.31 (0.86) 4.36 (0.89)
 Intermediate 4.28 (0.75) 4.26 (0.85) 4.27 (0.84) 4.28 (0.85) 4.31 (0.90)
 High 4.26 (0.85) 4.29 (1.00) 4.23 (0.94) 4.28 (0.95) 4.25 (1.00)
  1. PsyCap, psychological capital; SD, standard deviation; ERI, effort-reward imbalance; PPE, perceived physical environment.
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.