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Table 3 Multivariate analyses of risk factors for under-weight in Southern Ethiopia

From: Determinants of underweight, stunting and wasting among schoolchildren

Variable Normal Weight Under Weight Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR(95% CI)
Sex     
Male 86 27 1 1
Female 90 15 0.5(0.3,1.1) 0.5(0.2,1.2)
Age, years     
7-9 105 17 1 1
10-14 71 25 2.2(1.0,4.3) 1.8(0.8,4.1)
Family size     
Small 67 15 1 1
Medium 82 16 0.9(0.4, 1.9) 0.7(0.3,1.7)
Large 27 11 1.8(0.7,4.5) 1.5(0.5,4.6)
Maternal education     
No formal education 80 31 1 1
Read and write 51 5 0.3(0.1,0.7) 0.3(0.1,0.9)**
Primary education 41 6 0.4(0.1,0.9) 0.4(0.1,1.3)
Secondary and above 4 0 NA NA
Monthly income, USD     
<10 96 29 1 1
11-25 53 8 0.5(0.2,1.2) 0.5(0.2,1.4)
>25 27 5 0.6(0.2,1.7) 0.5(0.1,1.8)
Personal hygiene     
Very good 21 2 1 1
Good 115 17 0.9(0.4,2.3) 1.2(0.2,6.2)
Poor 40 23 1.6(0.6,4.1) 3.8(0.7,2)
Food insecurity status     
Food secure 112 15 1 1
Mild food insecure 38 15 2.9(1.3,6.6) 2.4(0.9,6.2)**
Moderate food insecure 7 2 2.1(0.4,11.0) 2.7(0.4,20)
Severe food insecure 19 10 3.9(1.5,10.0) 3.9(1.2,12)**
Ascariasis only     
No 85 13 1 1
Yes 91 29 2.1(1.02,4.3) 1.2(0.5,3)
Hook worm infection     
No 171 40 1 1
Yes 5 2 1.7(0.3,90.0) 2.4(0.3,22)
Trichuriasis only     
No 170 41 1 1
yes 6 1 0.7(0.1,15.9) 0.8(0.1,9)
  1. **P value < 0.01; Multivariate analysis for underweight was done for children 7-9 years old. In the fully adjusted model: sex, age, family size, maternal education, monthly income, household food insecurity, infection with ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm and helmithiasis were used for underweight, stunting and wasting. For wasting in addition to these factors intakes of energy and carbohydrate were used.
  2. Dale Woreda, Southern Ethiopia, 2012.