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Table 2 Relative co-morbidity risks related to being overweight or obese

From: The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Co-morbidity Measure Overweight Obesity
   Male Female Male Female
Type II Diabetes* BMI 2.40 (2.12–2.72) 3.92 (3.10–4.97) 6.74 (5.55–8.19) 12.41 (9.03–17.06)
  WC 2.27 (1.67–3.10) 3.40 (2.42–4.78) 5.13 (3.81–6.90) 11.10 (8.23–14.96)
Cancer      
   Breast, Postmenopausal BMI - 1.08 (1.03–1.14) - 1.13 (1.05–1.22)
   Colorectal BMI 1.51 (1.37–1.67) 1.45 (1.30–1.62) 1.95 (1.59–2.39) 1.66 (1.52–1.81)
   Endometrial BMI - 1.53 (1.45–1.61) - 3.22 (2.91–3.56)
   Esophageal BMI 1.13 (1.02–1.26) 1.15 (0.97–1.36) 1.21 (0.97–1.52) 1.20 (0.95–1.53)
   Kidney BMI 1.40 (1.31–1.49) 1.82 (1.68–1.98) 1.82 (1.61–2.05) 2.64 (2.39–2.90)
   Ovarian BMI - 1.18 (1.12–1.23) - 1.28 (1.20–1.36)
   Pancreatic BMI 1.28 (0.94–1.75) 1.24 (0.98–1.56) 2.29 (1.65–3.19) 1.60 (1.17–2.20)
   Prostate BMI 1.14 (1.00–1.31) - 1.05 (0.85–1.30) -
Cardiovascular Diseases      
   Hypertension* BMI 1.28 (1.10–1.50) 1.65 (1.24–2.19) 1.84 (1.51–2.24) 2.42 (1.59–3.67)
  WC NA 1.38 (1.27–1.51) NA 1.90 (1.77–2.03)
   Coronary Artery Disease* BMI 1.29 (1.18–1.41) 1.80 (1.64–1.98) 1.72 (1.51–1.96) 3.10 (2.81–3.43)
  WC 1.41 (1.16–1.72) 1.82 (1.41–2.36) 1.81 (1.45–2.25) 2.69 (2.05–3.53)
   Congestive Heart Failure* BMI 1.31 (0.96–1.79) 1.27 (0.68–2.37) 1.79 (1.24–2.59) 1.78 (1.07–2.95)
   Pulmonary Embolism BMI 1.91 (1.39–2.64) 1.91 (1.39–2.64) 3.51 (2.61–4.73) 3.51 (2.61–4.73)
   Stroke* BMI 1.23 (1.13–1.34) 1.15 (1.00–1.32) 1.51 (1.33–1.72) 1.49 (1.27–1.74)
Other      
   Asthma BMI 1.20 (1.08–1.33) 1.25 (1.05–1.49) 1.43 (1.14–1.79) 1.78 (1.36–2.32)
   Gallbladder Disease* BMI 1.09 (0.87–1.37) 1.44 (1.05–1.98) 1.43 (1.04–1.96) 2.32 (1.17–4.57)
  WC 1.61 (1.40–1.85) NA 2.38 (2.06–2.75) NA
   Osteoarthritis BMI 2.76 (2.05–3.70) 1.80 (1.75–1.85) 4.20 (2.76–6.41) 1.96 (1.88–2.04)
   Chronic Back Pain BMI 1.59 (1.34–1.89) 1.59 (1.34–1.89) 2.81 (2.27–3.48) 2.81 (2.27–3.48)
  1. BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference
  2. If indicated, the relative risks calculated from the ratios of proportions (RR-Ps) were used; otherwise, the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were used;
  3. Both RR-Ps and IRRs were used
  4. *WC measures were considered to be the better risk predictor than BMI measures
  5. Cancer: cases, not mortality and indicated by physician diagnosis of cancer; Coronary Artery Disease: indicated by Myocardial Infarction or Angina; Osteoarthritis: indicated by joint replacement; Chronic Back Pain: indicated by early retirement due to back pain
  6. NA: Not available; "-" Not applicable