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Table 2 Prior studies comparing FTND and HSI as measures of high nicotine dependence.

From: Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence vs heavy smoking index in a general population survey

  Population studied Interview Cohen's Kappa Se (%)
95% CI
Sp (%)
95% CI
Accuracy(%)
95% CI
+PV
95% CI
-PV (%)
95% CI
[12] 749 smokers
Age range: 18-64
Face to face 0.74 79.6%
(70.6-88.5)
96.5%
(95.1-98)
94.5%
(92.8-96.2)
75.3%
(66-85.6)
97.3%
(95.9-98.6)
  351 males   0.72 78.1%
(64.2-91.9)
96.1%
(93.8-98.4)
94%
(91.4-96.6)
72.7%
(58.4-87)
97.1%
(95-99.2)
  398 females   0.76 80.9%
(68.5-93.2)
96.9%
(94.9-98.8)
95%
(92.7-97.3)
77.6%
(64.9-90.3)
97.4%
(95.6-99.2)
[8] 1,462 smokers (5 samples from the US and Spain) Face to face 0.78 94.4%
(92.2-96.7)
88.1%
(86-90.1)
90%
(88.4-91.6)
77.8%
(74.2-81.3)
97.3%
(96.2-98.4)
[5] 819 smokers
Age range: 15 and over
Face to face 0.71 85.0%
(79.3-90.7)
91.3%
(89-93.5)
90%
(87.9-92.1)
71.4%
(64.8-77.9)
96.0%
(94.3-97.6)
  1. CI: Confidence interval, Se: Sensitivity, Sp: Specificity, +PV: positive predictive value, -PV: negative predictive value.