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Table 3 Symptoms and diagnoses of depression and PTSD among Haitian immigrant students

From: Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

Symptom n (%)
Depression
(Children's Depression Inventory n = 165)*
 
I have to push myself all the time/many times to do my schoolwork 65 (39.4%)
My schoolwork is not as good as before/I do very badly in subjects I used to be good in 36 (21.8%)
I feel alone many times/all the time 33 (20%)
I never have fun at school or fun only once in a while 26 (15.8%)
I have some friends but wish I had more/I do not have any friends 26 (15.8%)
Things bother me all the time/many times 25 (15.2%)
Sad many times or all the time 25 (15.2%)
I feel like crying many days/every day 19 (11.6%)
(Youth Self-Report n = 168)**
(selected items reporting somewhat or very true)
 
I feel that I have to be perfect 101 (60.5%)
Lonely 70 (41.7%)
I am nervous or tense 24 (14.5%)
I am too fearful or anxious 20 (12.0%)
Depression (diagnosis; n = 164) 23 (14.0%)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 168)** (% reported 'a little' or more unless otherwise specified)
Event something that would upset or bother most children a lot 80 (47.6%)
Is it as easy to pay attention as before the event? (% reporting 'no') 78 (46.4%)
Do you feel more alone inside, or more alone with your feelings? 69 (41.1%)
Do thoughts of event come back to you even when you don't want them to? 65 (38.7%)
When something reminds you, or makes you think about the event, do you get tense or upset? 64 (38.1%)
Do you get scared, afraid or upset when you think about event? 63 (37.5%)
Do things sometimes make you think it might happen again? 54 (32.1%)
Do you feel irritable or have outbursts of anger? 53 (31.5%)
Do you go over in your mind what happened? 51 (30.4%)
Do you have good or bad dreams of event or other bad dreams? 50 (29.8%)
Do you feel as good about things you liked to do before the event? (% reporting 'no') 50 (29.8%)
Have you felt so scared, upset, or sad that you couldn't even talk or cry? 49 (29.2%)
Do you want to stay away from things that make you remember what happened to you? 46 (27.4%)
Do you startle more easily or feel more jumpy or nervous than before the event? 43 (25.6%)
Do you avoid thoughts or feelings associated with the traumatic or hurtful events? 40 (23.8%)
Do you feel on guard or extremely aware of what is going on around you? 38 (22.6%)
Do you have recurrent dreams of hurtful or traumatic events? 36 (21.4%)
Do you feel so scared, upset, or sad that you don't really want to know how you feel? 34 (20.2%)
Do you ever feel as if the hurtful or traumatic events were happening all over again? 28 (16.7%)
Do you have more stomach aches, headaches, or other sick feelings since the event than before? 28 (16.7%)
Do thoughts or feelings about what happened get in the way of remembering things? 21 (12.5%)
PTSD (diagnosis; n = 164) 19 (11.6%)
Depression and PTSD (comorbidity; n = 164) 13 (7.9%)
  1. *Percent may not reflect denominator of 165 for some characteristics due to missing data.
  2. **Percent may not reflect denominator of 168 for some characteristics due to missing data.