Skip to main content

Table 2 Maternal Mortality Ratio and Health care system-related, educational and economical indicators of SSA countries: mean, SD and ranges for countries grouped according to its Human Development Index (HDI)

From: Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    HDI COUNTRIES
Indicator MEAN SD* HIGH MEDIUM LOW
Maternal mortality (deaths per 100 000 live births) 885 321 15 210-1000 450-2100
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM-RELATED
Infant mortality (deaths per 1000 live births) 97 24 12-13 26-123 50-165
Antenatal care coverage (%) 71 20 - 64-99 28-94
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 44 21 98 39-94 6-68
Access to an improved water source (%) 56 17 88-100 43-95 22-84
Access to improved sanitation (%) 37 15 - 18-65 9-61
EDUCATIONAL
Adult literacy rate (%) 58 18 84-91 51-89 23-73
Contraceptive prevalence (%) 23 14 76 18-60 3-34
Ratio of female rate to male rate (%) 0.70 0.17 <1** <1** <1**
Primary enrolment rate (%) 71 13 95-99% 44-97 40-95
Education index (%) 0.57 0.14 0.81-0.88 0.45-0.81 0.25-0.66
ECONOMICAL
Public expenditure on health (%GNP) 2.2 1.3 2.4-4.6 1.1-9.9 0.7-9.6
Public expenditure on education (%GNP) 4.5 1.7 4.5-5.4 0.6-13.4 2-6.1
Gross National Income per capita ($) 586 804 4081-7547 100-3865 110-647
External resources for Health (%) 16 11 1.4-4.6 0.4-45.4 1.4-49
Government expenditure on Health (%) 7.9 3.4 8.7-9 4.2-13.8 2-16
Out of pocket expenditure on Health (%) 78 23 62-77 17-100 39-100
Per-capita government expenditure on health ($) 34 65 95-346 3-192 1-19
  1. *SD: standard deviation
  2. ** The ratio of female literacy rate to male literacy rate was far below 1 with the exception of Seychelles (1.01), Botswana (1.02) and Lesotho (1.23).