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Table 1 Description of variables

From: Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

Variable Description
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM-RELATED
Infant mortality rate Number of deaths among infants (<1 year of age) per 1000 live births in a given year
Antenatal care coverage Percentage of women aged 15-49 years that were attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel (doctor, nurse, or midwife)
Births attended by skilled health personnel Percentage of births that received care from qualified medical personnel
Access to an improved water source Percentage of the population who use any of the following types of water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater
Access to improved sanitation Percentage of the population with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact. Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, pour-flush latrines and simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrines are assumed to be adequate, provided that they are not public
EDUCATIONAL  
Adult literacy rate Percentage of persons aged 15 years and over who can both read and write
Contraceptive prevalence Percentage of married women aged 15-49 that use contraceptive measures.
Ratio of female literacy rate to male rate The data refer to national literacy estimates from censuses or surveys
Primary enrolment rate Number of pupils of the theoretical school-age group who are enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group
Primary enrolment rate, female The same as the net primary enrolment rate, but only for the female group
Education index This measures a country's relative achievement in both adult literacy and combined primary, secondary and tertiary education.
ECONOMICAL  
Public expenditure on health This measures the final consumption of health care goods and services as percentage of the GNP
Public expenditure on education This measures the final consumption of education as percentage of the GNP
GNI per capita Gross National Income (in current US Dollars) divided by midyear population. The atlas method is used
External resources for health This includes all grants and loans for health goods and services passing through governments or private entities, in cash or in kind as a percentage of total expenditure on health
Government expenditure on health This gives an idea as to the priority that the health issues are given in government budgets expressed as percentage of the general government expenditure on health
Out-of-pocket expenditure on health These are the direct outlays of households, including gratuities and in-kind payments made to health practitioners, pharmaceutical suppliers, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services, as a percentage of the private expenditure on health.
Per-capita government expenditure on health This is the government expenditure on health per person