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Table 5 Incidence of maternal health problems during the puerperium

From: The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial

  Urban Rural Total
  Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Control
  (n = 73) (n = 69) (n = 81) (n = 79) (n = 154) (n = 148)
  n % n % n % n % n % n %
Constipation 12 16.44 22 31.88* 7 8.64 9 11.39 19 12.34 31 20.95*
Hemorrhoids 7 9.59 8 11.59 2 2.47 2 2.53 9 5.84 10 6.76
Anal fissure 2 2.74 3 4.35 1 1.23 3 3.8 3 1.95 6 4.05*
Urinary system infection 2 2.74 6 8.7 3 3.7 2 2.53 5 3.25 8 5.41
Cold or fever 5 6.85 6 8.7 1 1.23 3 3.8 6 3.9 9 6.08
Backache 21 28.77 18 26.09 1 1.23 0 0 22 15.58 18 12.16
Leg cramp or joint pain 0 0 5 7.25* 1 1.23 4 5.06 1 0.65 9 6.08**
Abdominal pain 2 2.74 12 17.39* 2 2.47 4 5.06 4 2.6 16 10.81**
Dizziness 4 5.48 10 14.49 0 0 2 2.53 4 2.6 12 8.11**
Headache 5 6.85 4 5.8 0 0 1 1.27 5 3.25 5 3.38
Oral inflammation 4 5.489 2 2.9 24 29.63 19 24.45 28 18.18 21 14.19
Gingival bleeding 6 8.22 3 4.35 10 12.13 11 13.92 16 10.39 14 9.46
Breast problems 43 58.9 38 55.07 3 3.7 12 15.19 46 29.87 50 33.78
Insufficient milk production 14 21.54 20 25.97 7 8.64 9 11.39 21 13.64 29 19.59*
Prolonged lochia rubra 29 39.73 31 44.93 2 2.47 2 2.53* 31 20.13 33 22.3
  1. * Indicates P-value of < 0.05 from t test between intervention and control groups.
  2. • Breast problems include breast swelling or pain, nipple fissure and mastitis.
  3. • Insufficient milk production means the mother's milk secretion cannot meet the baby's require, the baby was mainly fed by other dairy products.
  4. • Prolonged lochia rubra means lochia rubra lasted more than 1 week.