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Table 2 Seasonal characteristics derived from the annual harmonic regression with between-year confidence intervals

From: Geographic variations and temporal trends of Salmonella-associated hospitalization in the U.S. elderly, 1991-2004: A time series analysis of the impact of HACCP regulation

Division* Periods Time to peak in week Min rate† Max rate† Relative intensity (Max rate/Min rate)
   mean 95% CI mean 95% CI mean 95% CI mean 95% CI
West South Central Pre-HACCP 33.0 (31.9, 34.1) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 1.3 (1.1, 1.4) 2.3 (1.9, 2.6)
  Post-HACCP 29.8 (25.5, 34.2) 0.5 (0.5, 0.6) 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) 2.5 (2.2, 2.8)
East South Central Pre-HACCP 32.8 (30.8, 34.7) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 2.1 (1.8, 2.5)
  Post-HACCP 33.3 (31.2, 35.3) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) 2.1 (1.8, 2.4)
South Atlantic Pre-HACCP 30.5 (26.4, 34.6) 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) 1.6 (1.4, 1.7) 2.2 (1.8, 2.5)
  Post-HACCP 33.1 (32.3, 34.0) 0.9 (0.8, 0.9) 2.0 (1.8, 2.3) 2.4 (2.0, 2.7)
New England Pre-HACCP 32.3 (29.3, 35.3) 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) 2.4 (2.1, 2.7) 2.4 (1.7, 3.2)
  Post-HACCP 34.8 (33.7, 35.9) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 2.2 (1.8, 2.6) 2.2 (1.7, 2.7)
Contiguous U.S. Pre-HACCP 32.3 (29.3, 35.3) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 1.8 (1.3, 2.3)
  Post-HACCP 33.1 (32.6, 33.5) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 1.4 (1.3, 1.5) 2.4 (2.2, 2.5)
Middle Atlantic Pre-HACCP 32.2 (29.8, 34.6) 0.8 (0.7, 0.8) 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) 2.4 (1.9, 2.8)
  Post-HACCP 34.8 (33.1, 36.5) 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) 1.7 (1.4, 1.9) 2.5 (1.8, 3.1)
West North Central Pre-HACCP 32.4 (31.6, 33.3) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8) 2.9 (2.5, 3.3) 4.2 (3.6, 4.9)
  Post-HACCP 29.4 (24.4, 34.4) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) 1.9 (1.7, 2.1)
East North Central Pre-HACCP 33.0 (31.8, 34.2) 0.8 (0.8, 0.9) 2.2 (1.9, 2.5) 2.7 (2.3, 3.1)
  Post-HACCP 30.8 (29.6, 32.0) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 2.6 (2.2, 3.0) 2.9 (2.5, 3.2)
Mountain Pre-HACCP 34.0 (33.5, 34.5) 0.6 (0.6, 0.7) 1.7 (1.6, 1.8) 2.8 (2.3, 3.3)
  Post-HACCP 31.8 (30.5, 33.0) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8) 2.4 (2.0, 2.9) 3.8 (2.8, 4.8)
Pacific‡ Pre-HACCP 33.6 (32.8, 34.4) 0.8 (0.7, 0.8) 2.4 (2.1, 2.7) 3.3 (2.9, 3.7)
  Post-HACCP 28.4 (24.4, 32.5) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) 2.8 (2.0, 3.5)
  1. * National (in bold) and divisional data are ranked in descending order of annual rates of hospitalization (see Figure 1).
  2. † Weekly, cases per 1,000,000 elderly population
  3. ‡ Excluding HI & AK