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Table 4 Associations between adolescent risk behaviours and age of menarche in females

From: Early pubertal onset and its relationship with sexual risk taking, substance use and anti-social behaviour: a preliminary cross-sectional study

   Age of menarche (years)
   Online (%) Paper (%) Total (%)
   n ≤ 12 ≥ 13 P n ≤ 12 ≥ 13 P n ≤ 12 ≥ 13 P¥
  drank alcohol 812 46.9 38.5 * 572 59.8 47.4 ** 1384 51.5 42.6 ***
Before age was drunk 820 25.7 19.0 * 572 36.2 26.7 * 1392 29.4 22.5 **
14 years, took drugs 806 5.9 3.3 0.071 559 8.7 2.9 ** 1365 6.9 3.1 **
  smoked 822 29.0 22.6 * 570 29.3 22.4 0.065 1392 29.1 22.5 **
  had sex 820 32.8 22.4 *** 554 35.0 23.1 * 1374 33.5 22.7 ***
Before age
16 years,
had unprotected sex 820 13.4 11.0 0.286 563 13.5 7.3 * 1383 13.4 9.3 *
  first pregnant 822 1.0 1.0 1.000 578 1.3 0.6 0.341 1400 1.1 0.8 0.763
  had an abortion 822 12.4 13.1 0.754 578 7.9 6.6 0.529 1400 10.8 10.1 0.986
∫Took drugs/alcohol at first sex 785 28.4 28.4 0.991 509 28.8 20.6 * 1294 28.5 25.0 0.234
$Typical aggression 142 19.0 15.7 0.324 93 16.0 17.6 0.428 235 18.0 16.6 0.782
reactions to ignoring people 226 25.9 29.5   153 31.0 25.9   379 27.6 27.9  
emotional upset moodiness 449 55.1 54.8   303 53.1 56.5   752 54.4 55.6  
Bullying victim 820 63.4 56.1 * 573 50.0 46.1 0.362 1393 58.6 51.5 *
  perpetrator 822 18.0 19.2 0.654 564 17.4 12.4 0.094 1386 17.8 16.1 0.580
§Frequency Never 607 71.6 76.8 0.392 448 74.0 80.2 0.108 1055 72.5 78.4 *
of <1/year 138 19.3 14.4   64 12.8 10.0   202 17.0 12.4  
involvement circa 1/year 47 6.4 5.1   38 7.9 5.7   85 6.9 5.4  
in fighting >1/year 26 2.7 3.7   26 5.3 4.0   52 3.6 3.8  
Time off ≤ 10 days 672 78.0 86.7 ** 450 73.5 84.3 ** 1122 76.4 85.6 ***
school/year ≥ 11 days 144 22.0 13.3   112 26.5 15.7   256 23.6 14.4  
  1. Questions not relating to a specific age refer to adolescence (here measured as the time period post menarche). *<0.05, **<0.01, ***<0.001, ns = not significant. $Respondents could select only one answer. §Analyses utilised chi squared for a trend. ¥Combined analyses on dichotomised variables utilised a stratified chi-squared design. ∫Analyses limited to those individuals who reported ever having had sex.