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Table 2 Percentage distribution of participant characteristics by language preference and acculturation index among 11,817 Latinos: CMHS.

From: Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men's Health Study

  Language preference Acculturation Index  
     1st Gen-Years since migration US-born  
  Span Eng P < 10 y 11-15 y 16-25 y > 25 y 2nd Gen ≥ 3rd Gen P
Total (n (%)) 2296 (19.4) 9521 (80.6)   174 (1.5) 309 (2.6) 1189 (10.1) 3538 (29.9) 1648 (14.0) 4954 (41.9)  
Age (Mean, SD) 56.4 57.4 < .001 53.6 52.5 53.3 57.8 60.8 57.0 < .001
Education    < .001        < .001
   Less than high school 55.6 12.6   21.8 30.1 41.3 34.9 12.4 8.3  
   High school or GED 12.3 19.7   10.3 9.1 10.8 16.1 21.6 21.2  
   Vocational/technical school 9.8 7.3   12.1 7.4 9.3 9.6 6.1 6.4  
   Some college 8.1 34.2   12.1 14.2 15.7 20.6 35.6 37.9  
   College graduate 12.3 25.7   42.5 37.5 21.3 17.7 23.6 25.8  
Marital status    < .001        < .001
   Married 87.1 81.9   82.2 86.7 86.1 86.1 83.0 79.5  
   Never married 2.2 4.8   5.8 2.6 3.6 2.9 4.3 5.5  
   Separated/divorced/widowed 9.5 13.0   12.1 10.0 9.6 10.3 12.3 14.6  
Yearly household income ($)    < .001        < .001
   < $20 000 23.1 5.85   25.9 17.2 17.1 12.2 6.2 5.0  
   20 000-39 999 45.7 20.0   42.5 42.1 41.4 29.3 23.4 16.8  
   40 000-59 999 19.3 22.6   20.1 24.6 20.9 22.9 21.5 21.7  
   60 000-79 999 6.1 20.4   3.5 8.1 10.3 14.9 19.1 22.0  
   80 000-99 999 1.9 11.9   4.6 3.2 4.3 7.6 11.5 13.1  
   ≥ 100 000 0.9 16.1   1.7 3.2 3.9 10.1 14.1 18.3  
Body mass index (kg/m 2 )    < .001        < .001
   < 25 16.4 16.4   25.3 23.3 17.8 18.4 14.9 14.6  
   25-29 53.6 49.4   52.3 52.1 53.2 53.8 49.9 46.8  
   30-34 23.3 24.0   18.4 17.8 22.1 21.6 24.8 26.1  
   35-39 5.1 7.3   3.5 4.5 5.3 4.6 7.7 8.8  
   ≥ 40 1.7 2.9   0.6 2.3 1.5 1.6 2.8 3.7  
Physical activity (METS-hours/week)    < .001        < .001
   Q1 (< 320) 46.5 29.4   40.2 48.5 41.6 36.9 26.1 28.5  
   Q2 (320-1040) 23.8 24.5   24.1 22.3 25.9 24.9 23.3 24.1  
   Q3 (1041-2147) 16.1 22.5   17.2 15.2 16.7 20.2 24.1 22.7  
   Q4 (≥ 2148) 11.1 23.4   16.7 13.3 13.4 17.0 26.2 24.5  
Alcohol consumption (gm/day)    < .001        < .001
   None 28.3 29.3   27.6 25.6 29.1 26.4 30.5 30.9  
   Q1 (< 2.1) 39.5 24.0   37.9 42.4 35.3 30.7 22.9 22.4  
   Q2 (2.1-8.2) 18.2 18.8   22.4 19.1 19.3 19.7 16.4 18.4  
   Q3 (8.3-20.8) 8.6 15.2   9.2 9.1 10.3 13.3 15.8 15.1  
   Q4 (≥ 20.9) 5.4 12.7   2.9 3.9 6.0 9.9 14.3 13.3  
Total calories/day    < .001        < .001
   Q1 (< 1447) 51.5 35.5   43.7 46.0 47.4 44.8 37.3 31.8  
   Q2 (1447-1990) 19.1 23.4   25.3 21.7 19.5 21.5 22.5 24.1  
   Q3 (1991-2618) 13.9 19.6   12.6 15.9 15.7 17.4 18.7 20.3  
   Q4 (≥ 2619) 15.6 21.5   18.4 16.5 17.3 16.4 21.6 23.9  
% calories from fat    < .001        < .001
   Q1 (< 29.6) 27.1 22.9   24.7 26.9 28.5 28.2 22.4 19.6  
   Q2 (29.6-34.9) 27.1 24.5   34.5 27.8 27.1 28.7 23.8 21.8  
   Q3 (35.0-40.1) 28.1 26.1   26.4 30.1 27.5 25.3 25.4 27.3  
   Q4 (≥ 40.2) 17.6 26.5   14.4 15.2 16.9 17.8 28.4 31.4  
Hypertension 32.7 41.9 < .001 24.7 23.0 28.3 38.6 45.8 43.8 < .001
Dyslipidemia 59.7 66.0 < .001 53.5 58.9 57.4 65.7 68.0 65.7 < .001
Depression 11.4 10.0 .04 10.3 11.3 12.1 10.7 8.4 10.0 0.11
Current smoker 23.7 13.4 < .001 24.7 16.8 19.3 17.4 13.5 13.2 < .001
Diabetes 20.3 22.6 .02 12.1 13.3 16.7 21.3 25.5 23.8 < .001
  1. Span: Spanish. Eng: English. Gen: Generation.
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