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Table 8 Muscle strength – the within-group differences between post – and pre-intervention values

From: Combined effects of functionally-oriented exercise regimens and nutritional supplementation on both the institutionalised and free-living frail elderly (double-blind, randomised clinical trial)

  Group I (n = 19)
PRE+FOE +nutritional supplement
Group II (n = 21)
PRE+FOE +placebo
Group III (n = 19)
SE+FOE +nutritional supplement
Group IV (n = 21)
SE+FOE +placebo
  mean ± SD p value mean ± SD p value mean ± SD p value mean ± SD p value
Right leg         
Knee flexion 3.3 ± 6.3 0.09 3.0 ± 5.4 0.06 -0.3 ± 5.8 0.65 -1.5 ± 4.3 0.79
Knee extension 5.6 ± 9.6 0.02 3.8 ± 9.7 0.08 1.7 ± 8.9 0.21 1.4 ± 9.0 0.36
Hip flexion 5.2 ± 7.8 0.009 6.6 ± 9.7 0.005 3.3 ± 11.3 0.22 3.1 ± 9.9 0.16
Hip extension 4.6 ± 9.1 0.05 4.8 ± 6.1 0.003 1.9 ± 5.8 0.31 0.7 ± 6.5 0.91
Left leg         
Knee flexion 4.2 ± 5.9 0.02 4.1 ± 4.3 0.01 1.5 ± 5.2 0.47 0.2 ± 3.8 0.31
Knee extension 6.0 ± 7.9 0.003 6.0 ± 7.8 0.002 2.7 ± 9.8 0.24 1.7 ± 8.7 0.17
Hip flexion 4.2 ± 12.2 0.09 3.5 ± 8.2 0.02 2.7 ± 7.8 0.14 1.5 ± 8.7 0.46
Hip extension 4.4 ± 6.2 0.004 3.1 ± 7.0 0.07 -0.2 ± 5.8 0.78 -0.2 ± 4.6 0.26
  1. p value for test of interaction effect between the PRE and SE regimens. Bold font highlights all statistically significant results.