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Table 3 Muscle strength – changes in outcome measures between groups: baseline values vs. scores after 7 weeks.

From: Combined effects of functionally-oriented exercise regimens and nutritional supplementation on both the institutionalised and free-living frail elderly (double-blind, randomised clinical trial)

Muscle strength (N/m.) Group I (n = 19)
PRE+FOE+ nutritional supplement
Group II (n = 21)
PRE+FOE + placebo
Group III (n = 19)
SE+FOE+ nutritional supplement
Group IV (n = 21)
SE+FOE + placebo
Overall
P-value
  mean ± SD mean ± SD mean ± SD mean ± SD  
Right leg      
Knee flexion 21.4 ± 6.6 21.5 ± 5.7 17.4 ± 6.4 17.1 ± 4.9 0.04
Knee extension 38.6 ± 10.8 39.8 ± 12.6 36.2 ± 12.2 34.9 ± 12.0 0.01
Hip flexion 32.3 ± 11.6 36.5 ± 11.6 32.9 ± 10.7 31.6 ± 8.7 0.03
Hip extension 25.8 ± 5.3 26.1 ± 8.4 22.1 ± 6.8 21.0 ± 7.9 0.01
Left leg      
Knee flexion 22.5 ± 7.0 22.0 ± 6.9 19.2 ± 6.3 19.1 ± 6.1 0.05
Knee extension 39.6 ± 12.7 42.8 ± 9.9 35.8 ± 13.4 36.6 ± 10.9 0.04
Hip flexion 34.0 ± 11.5 35.4 ± 11.0 33.8 ± 11.6 32.0 ± 9.6 NS
Hip extension 26.8 ± 6.0 25.5 ± 9.3 21.4 ± 7.3 21.9 ± 8.6 0.01
  1. PRE – Progressive resistance exercises, FOE – Functionally-oriented exercises, SE – Standard exercises, SD – standard deviation, NS – statistically non-significant. Analysis of variance (ANOVA I), with the Bonferroni correction for comparison between the respective groups. Bold font highlights all statistically significant results.