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Table 1 Outcome measures for the study

From: The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity


Measure - assessment sessions at child health clinics






Food intake records


3 non-consecutive days (including weekend day), using 2 × 24 h food records + telephone 24 h-recall. Standard protocol (including estimation of breast milk intake and standardised visual aids for serve size estimation) will match FITS [48] and other [49] studies; well accepted in pilot study.


Food preference


The Wardle tool [37] adapted to Australian target foods. Mothers rate on 5-pt scale from 'likes a lot' - 'dislikes a lot' with option for 'hasn't tried it'

Feeding behaviour


Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire [50]. Validated 35-item parent report of satiety responsiveness, fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment, emotional over/under eating.


Weight & growth

Recumbent length and weight. Weight, length and weight-for-length z-scores calculated using CDC EpiInfo (version 3.3.2).



Feeding style and practices


The Infant Feeding Questionnaire [36]. 20-item - under/over-eating, hunger, infant cues, scheduling, use of food to calm.


Child Feeding Questionnaire [43] 28-item - 2-11 yrs. - feeding attitudes, practices, perceptions/concerns regarding weight.


Parenting skills H4

Four brief scales from LSAC measuring warmth, irritability, consistency and overprotection (24 items)[41]


Height and weight using standard procedures

  1. T1 = baseline, pre-allocation, infants 4-7 mths; T2 = mid study- 9 mths, infants aged 13-16 mths; T3 = final -18 mths, infants aged 22-29 mths. LSAC = Longitudinal Study of Australian Children