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Table 2 Covariates included in final multivariate models reported in 13 longitudinal studies that examined the association between smoking and depression in adolescents.

From: A systematic review of longitudinal studies on the association between depression and smoking in adolescents

Covariate Study(ies) that included the covariate in the final multivariate model (citation number)
Age (all)
Sex (all)
alcohol use [26, 32, 33, 37, 45, 46, 65]
parental education [32, 36, 41, 42, 61, 66]
family income [32, 37, 41, 61, 66]
race/ethnic group [32, 3537, 42, 46, 65]
smoking among peers [26, 32, 33, 37, 45, 65, 66]
parental smoking [26, 32, 36, 66]
marijuana/other drug use [32, 33, 41, 65]
Academic performance [32, 36, 37, 65]
physical activity [26, 65]
temperament [33]
social support [33]
parental attachment [37]
Anxiety [31, 37]
Childhood adversity [37]
conduct problems [37, 66]
novelty-seeking [37]
neuroticism [37]
drive for thinness [45]