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Table 1 Characteristics of longitudinal studies on the relationship between depression and smoking among adolescents.

From: A systematic review of longitudinal studies on the association between depression and smoking in adolescents

First Author Year Where study took place Baseline age or grade Follow-up period n Method of analysis Estimate of effect of smoking predicting depression Estimate of effect of depression predicting smoking
Brown 1996 Western Oregon 14 to 18 years 1 year 1507 Logistic regression OR = 1.89 (1.04, 3.45) OR = 2.04 (1.16,3.60)
Escobedo 1998 United States 12 to 18 years 1 year 7885 Logistic Not assessed OR = 1.30 (1.10, 1.60)
Patton 1998 Victoria, Australia Grades 9 to 12 every 6 months for 3 years 1688 person years/time varying Survival analysis Not assessed HR = 2.00 (1.30, 2.90) Significant among girls only
Wu 1999 Mid Atlantic US 8 and 9 years Every 6 months, 1 year 1731 Survival analysis HR = 1.66 1.28, 2.16 HR = 1.06 (0.74, 1.51)
Goodman 2000 United States Grade 7 to 12 2 years 8704 Logistic OR = 3.90 (1.85, 8.20) OR = 1.72 (0.78, 3.81)
Albers 2002 Massachussets 12-15 years old 4 years 522 Logistic OR = 1.74 (0.97, 3.14) Not assessed
Fergusson 2003 New Zealand Birth every year, 21 years 1265 Incidence ratio Not assessed RR 1.75 (1.13, 2.70)
Lam 2004 Hong Kong Grade 7 1 year 1894 Logistic OR = 2.17 (1.40,3.36) OR 1.48 (1.07, 2.05)
Audrain-McGovern 2004 Northern Virginia Grade 9 Every year, 3 years 615 Ordinal logit Not assessed OR = 1.04 (0.76, 1.42)
Clark 2004 Pittsburgh 10 to 12 years 2 years, 3 years, 3 years 572 Survival analysis Not assessed HR = 1.0
Killen 1997 Northern California Grade 9 1 year for 4 years 1901 Survival analysis Not assessed Girls: HR = 1.55 (n = 463 x2 = 4.91), boys: HR = 1.03 (n = 481, x2 = 7.84)
Gilpin 2004 California 12 to 15 years old 1 year 1764 Logistic Not assessed OR = 1.46 (1.04, 2.05)
Brook 1998 Albany and Saratoga 1 to 10 years 3 years, 6 years, 5 years 975 Logistic OR = 1.19 (1.01, 1.40) OR = 1.12 (0.28, 4.44)
  1. OR = odds ratio
  2. HR = hazard ratio
  3. RR = risk ratio