Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of suicide cases and controls

From: Risk factors for suicide in Bali: a psychological autopsy study

  Suicide cases (n = 60)
n (percent)
Controls (n = 120)
n (percent)
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
Socio-demographic data    
   History of divorce 7 (11.7%) 4 (3.3%) 3.83 (1.08-13.65)*
   Low education (≤ 9 years) 49 (81.7%) 75 (62.5%) 2.67 (1.26-5.67)*
   Living alone 5 (8.3%) 1 (0.8%) 10.82 (1.23-94.81)*
   Unemployed 25 (41.7%) 20 (16.7%) 3.57 (1.77-7.21)***
Negative life events    
   Severe interpersonal problems 26(43.3%) 10 (8.3%) 8.41 (3.69-19.19)***
   Severe financial problems 14 (23.3%) 12 (10.0%) 2.74 (1.18-6.38)*
   Serious physical illness 14(23.3%) 10 (8.3%) 3.35 (1.39-8.08)**
Mental health factors    
   At least one psychiatric diagnosis 48 (80.0%) 18 (15.0%) 22.67 (10.11-50.80)***
   Past psychiatric treatment 8 (13.3%) 2 (1.7%) 9.08 (1.86-44.22)**
   Past treatment from traditional healer 11 (18.3%) 6 (5.0%) 4.27 (1.49-12.18)**
Psychosocial factors    
   Low level of religious involvement 27 (45.0%) 6 (5.0%) 15.55 (5.92-40.83)***
   Small social network 17 (28.3%) 4 (3.3%) 11.47 (3.65-35.99)***
   Low frequency of social contact 13 (21.7%) 10 (8.3%) 3.04 (1.25-7.43)*
   Previous suicide attempt 12 (20.0%) 2 (1.7%) 14.75 (3.18-68.40)**
   Family history of suicide 10 (16.7%) 3 (2.5%) 7.80 (2.06-29.56)***
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001