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Table 1 Characteristics of all the participants to the study (N = 574) and of the subgroup (N = 326) admitted to the case-crossover analysisa.

From: A case-crossover study of alcohol consumption, meals and the risk of road traffic crashes

  All subjects Subjects in case-crossover analysis
Gender, male, No. (%) 301 (52.4) 175 (53.7)
Age, mean ± standard deviation (median) 39.8 ± 15.2 (38) 38.2 ± 13.2 (38)
Level of education, No. (%)   
   Elementary school 41 (7.1) 12 (3.7)
   Middle school 175 (30.5) 98 (30.1)
   High school 271 (47.2) 165 (50.6)
   University 86 (15.0) 51 (15.6)
Occupation, No. (%)   
   Employed 412 (71.8) 263 (80.7)
   Student 49 (8.5) 23 (7.1)
   Housewife 24 (4.2) 9 (2.8)
   Retired 72 (12.5) 24 (7.4)
   Unemployed 17 (3.0) 7 (2.1)
Marital status, No. (%)   
   Married (spouse/husband present) 250 (43.5) 142 (43.7)
   Widowed, divorced or separated 76 (13.2) 36 (11.0)
   Single (never married) 245 (42.7) 147 (45.2)
Nationality, No. (%)   
   Italian 522 (90.4) 296 (91.4)
   Foreign, European Union 9 (1.6) 5 (1.5)
   Foreign, Non European Union 37 (6.4) 23 (7.1)
Driving license held for, No. (%)   
   No license 31 (6.3) 13 (4.1)
   <1 year 11 (2.2) 6 (1.9)
   1-4 years 57 (11.6) 38 (12.1)
   ≥ 5 years 392 (79.8) 255 (81.7)
Type of vehicle driven during the crash, No. (%)   
   Car 367 (64.4) 226 (69.3)
   Motorcycle 111 (19.5) 64 (19.6)
   Bicycle 82 (8.5) 28 (8.6)
   Van 7(1.2) 5 (1.5)
   Truck 3 (0.5) 3 (0.9)
Vehicle of the crash is of the type most frequently driven, No. (%) 477 (83.1) 254 (84.4)
Weekendb, No. (%) 191 (33.3) 103 (31.6)
Nightb, c, No. (%) 60 (10.4) 44 (13.5)
Unfavourable weather (rain, snow, fog, hail or strong wind)b, No. (%) 105 (18.3) 64 (19.6)
Uneven, wet, or dirty road surfaceb, No. (%) 196 (34.1) 111 (34.0)
Type of crash, No. (%)   
   Two motor vehicle, head-on 26 (4.5) 14 (4.3)
   Two motor vehicle, side 171 (29.8) 100 (30.8)
   Two motor vehicle, rear end 213 (37.1) 126 (38.8)
   One vehicle (rollover or impact against fixed obstacle) 78 (13.6) 49 (15.0)
   Fall from vehicle 77 (13.4) 32 (9.8)
   Other 6 (1.0) 4 (1.2)
Previous experience of the route of crash, No. (%)   
   Habitual or well known 380 (66.2) 222 (68.1)
   Already done but not well known 170 (29.6) 93 (28.5)
   Entirely new 22 (3.8) 11 (3.4)
Driver at fault (self-rated), No. (%)   
   Yes 151 (26.3) 80 (24.7)
   Partially 55 (9.6) 30 (9.3)
   No 364 (63.9) 214 (66.0)
  1. a Percentages may not add too 100% due to missing values. b Referred to the case window. c Night is approximated as from 6.00 pm to 6.59 am from October to March and from 8.00 pm to 5.59 am from April to September