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Table 4 Adjusted associations between area characteristics and adverse birth outcomes according to maternal birth place, singleton births, Québec, Canada, 1999–2003

From: The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

  Foreign-born Canadian-born
  OR* 95% CI OR 95% CI OR* 95% CI OR 95% CI
PTB         
   Area income         
Poorest 0.96 0.85–1.09 0.95 0.83–1.09 1.07 1.02–1.13 1.07 1.00–1.14
Intermediate 0.96 0.85–1.09 0.95 0.83–1.08 1.04 0.98–1.11 1.03 0.97–1.09
Wealthiest Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Immigrant density         
Low 0.80 0.65–0.99 0.79 0.63–1.00 1.12 1.06–1.19 1.14 1.07–1.21
Intermediate 0.91 0.81–1.03 0.89 0.77–1.02 1.05 0.99–1.12 1.08 1.02–1.15
High Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Income inequality         
High 1.05 0.92–1.21 0.98 0.84–1.15 0.92 0.86–0.98 1.02 0.95–1.09
Intermediate 0.97 0.84–1.12 0.93 0.79–1.08 0.96 0.90–1.01 1.01 0.96–1.07
Low Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
SGA birth         
   Area income         
Poorest 1.02 0.92–1.14 1.00 0.88–1.13 1.11 1.05–1.17 1.13 1.06–1.20
Intermediate 0.95 0.85–1.06 0.93 0.83–1.05 1.06 1.00–1.13 1.08 1.02–1.15
Wealthiest Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Immigrant density         
Low 0.98 0.83–1.16 0.96 0.80–1.16 0.98 0.92–1.04 0.94 0.88–1.01
Intermediate 0.95 0.85–1.06 0.93 0.83–1.05 0.99 0.93–1.06 1.01 0.95–1.08
High Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Income inequality         
High 0.95 0.84–1.07 0.94 0.82–1.09 0.95 0.90–1.01 0.95 0.88–1.02
Intermediate 0.94 0.82–1.06 0.93 0.81–1.06 0.99 0.94–1.05 0.98 0.92–1.04
Low Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
  1. PTB = preterm birth; SGA = small-for-gestational-age
  2. * Adjusted for individual-level variables (maternal age, education, civil status, birth place, and previous births). PTB is also adjusted for infant sex.
  3. † Adjusted for individual-level variables and all variables in table.
  4. ‡ Results are for generalised estimating equations. All other results are for multi-level logistic regression models.