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Table 3 Crude and adjusted associations between area characteristics and adverse birth outcomes, singleton births, Québec, Canada, 1999–2003

From: The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

  Crude OR 95% CI Adjusted OR* 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI
PTB       
   Area income       
Poorest 1.13 1.07–1.20 1.06 1.01–1.12 1.05 0.98–1.12
Intermediate 1.08 1.02–1.14 1.04 0.99–1.10 1.02 0.96–1.09
Wealthiest Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Immigrant density       
Low 1.07 1.01–1.14 1.11 1.05–1.17 1.10 1.02–1.18
Intermediate 0.99 0.94–1.06 1.03 0.98–1.08 1.04 0.97–1.12
High Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Income inequality       
High 0.92 0.86–0.98 0.96 0.90–1.01 1.01 0.94–1.09
Intermediate 0.94 0.89–1.00 0.96 0.91–1.01 0.99 0.93–1.05
Low Referent   Referent   Referent  
SGA birth       
   Area income       
Poorest 1.21 1.14–1.29 1.09 1.03–1.14 1.09 1.03–1.15
Intermediate 1.12 1.05–1.19 1.05 1.00–1.10 1.06 1.00–1.12
Wealthiest Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Immigrant density       
Low 0.91 0.85–0.98 0.97 0.92–1.03 0.94 0.88–1.00
Intermediate 0.89 0.83–0.95 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 0.99 0.94–1.05
High Referent   Referent   Referent  
   Income inequality       
High 0.95 0.89–1.02 0.96 0.90–1.01 0.94 0.88–1.00
Intermediate 1.00 0.93–1.07 0.98 0.93–1.03 0.96 0.90–1.01
Low Referent   Referent   Referent  
  1. PTB = preterm birth; SGA = small-for-gestational-age
  2. * Adjusted for individual-level variables (maternal age, education, civil status, birth place, and previous births). PTB is also adjusted for infant sex.
  3. † Adjusted for individual-level variables and all variables in table.
  4. ‡ Results are for generalised estimating equations. All other results are for multi-level logistic regression models.