Skip to main content

Table 1 Frequency of preterm and small-for-gestational age birth according to individual- and area-level characteristics, singleton births, Québec, Canada, 1999–2003

From: The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

  PTB SGA birth
  % N* % N*
Individual-level characteristics     
   Maternal birth place     
Foreign-born 6.3 59 474 9.5 59 432
Canadian-born 6.3 291 149 8.1 290 922
   Maternal education     
No high school diploma 8.3 41 558 12.0 41 528
High school diploma 7.3 35 473 10.0 35 450
Some post secondary 6.3 67 391 8.9 67 343
Some university or more 5.4 183 041 6.8 182 918
   Maternal age     
<20 years 8.8 14 236 11.7 14 222
20–34 years 6.1 289 745 8.1 289 529
35+ years 7.0 49 025 8.6 48 976
   Civil status     
Married 5.7 146 691 7.3 146 590
Cohabiting 6.4 172 401 8.6 172 268
Single 8.9 24 870 11.8 24 840
   Previous births     
None 7.2 167 749 10.4 167 613
One or more 5.5 185 257 6.5 185 114
   Infant sex     
Male 6.7 181 422 8.4 181 279
Female 5.9 171 584 8.3 171 448
Area-level characteristics     
   Income     
Poorest 6.7 114 187 9.0 114 076
Intermediate 6.4 119 311 8.4 119 223
Wealthiest 5.9 119 508 7.6 119 428
   Immigrant density     
Low 6.6 115 375 8.1 115 287
Intermediate 6.2 119 046 8.0 118 956
High 6.2 118 585 8.9 118 484
   Income inequality     
High 6.1 117 485 8.1 117 386
Intermediate 6.3 118 209 8.3 118 120
Low 6.6 117 312 8.5 117 221
   Total 6.3 353 006 8.3 352 727
  1. PTB = preterm birth; SGA = small-for-gestational-age
  2. * Denominators do not sum to total because missing data are not shown.
  3. † The overall prevalence of SGA birth has declined in Québec in the past decade, which explains the 8.3% prevalence rather than the expected 10% (the SGA reference curves were constructed for 1994–1996 at a time when SGA birth was more common)[31].