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Table 4 Overview of the reason categories in which one or several reasons were reported for each behaviour

From: A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

Reason categories Starting ecstasy use Using ecstasy Using more ecstasy Not ceasing ecstasy use Not starting ecstasy Using less ecstasy Ceasing ecstasy use
Addiction, fear of becoming dependent      ± ±
Availability/price/quality of ecstasy N ± ±   - + ±
Changing life circumstances (moving in or out of a certain lifestyle)    ±    ± ±
Curiosity (or lack of curiosity) N     ±   
Decreased drug effects or decreased appreciation of drug effects    ±    ±  
Denying or forgetting negative effects     N    
Desire to be on the same level as friends (i.e. to be similarly intoxicated) N +      
Ecstasy is overrated       N ±
Ease of administration N N      
Enhance energy and dancing   +      
Enhance mood (to feel good) N +      
Enhance other substances' effects   ±      
Enhance sex   +      
Enhance social interaction   + -     
Enhance/change sensory perception   +      
Experienced no or unpleasant ecstasy effects   ± N   ±   ±
Experienced very pleasant effects   + N     
Fear of ecstasy's effects      ±   
Feeling safe about ecstasy contents and ecstasy use setting N   +     
Help lose weight   -      
Help you to concentrate, work, or study   -      
Intoxication, losing inhibitions N +      
Legal consequences        ±
Minimising ecstasy comedown       +  
Minimising health risks or fear of health risks      ± + +
Noticed mood/affective/cognitive changes in oneself       ± +
Observation of others using ecstasy      ±   N
Other's bad experience/mood/affective/cognitive changes/death       ± ±
Own bad experience       ± +
Positive effects outweigh negative effects N    N    
Presence or lack of opportunity   +    ±   
Recreation/relaxation/stop worrying N +      
Responsibilities or relationship problems       ± +
Self-medication   ±      
Social influence (friends use ecstasy or quit using ecstasy)   ± - N - - ±
Social influence from relatives        -
Spirituality   +      
  1. Note: + denotes highly relevant categories; ± denotes moderately relevant categories; -denotes minimally relevant categories; N denotes that no relevance information was available; ✘ denotes irrelevant reasons.